Presentation on theme: "Personality: Some Definitions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Personality: Some Definitions An individual’s relatively distinct & consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving.Personality Traitsdispositions to behave in a particular way in a variety of situationsPersonality PsychologyThe scientific study of the psychological forces that people uniquely themselves.
2 The Main Themes of Course Interactionist model of behaviorGenes, environment, experiencesBehavior is Multi-facetedMany causes for behaviorBehavior varies in different situationsDiversity & CommonalityIdiographic & nomotheticConsistency & variabilityFindings based on researchEmpirical studiesReplication of studiesGeneralizability of findingsApplicable to real lifeValidity of theories in personal experiencesUseful in predicting or explaining behavior
4 Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud Defense MechanismsConflicts: Id & Super EgoGoal is to reduce anxietyCommon defensesDenial, repression, rationalizationPsychoanalytic theoryunconscious drives & motivessexual & aggressive urgesemphasis on early childhood experiencesStructure of personalityid (pleasure principle)ego (reality principle)super ego (moral values/beliefs)
5 Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud Psychosexual Stages of DevelopmentOral, anal, phallic, latent, genitalEmphasis placed on early developmentTrauma at a stage leads to “fixation”Consciousness (levels of awareness)conscious, preconscious, unconsciousTraumatic early childhood experiences repressed into the unconscious
6 Neo-Analysts Carl Jung - Analytical Psychology Archetypes & the collective unconscioustypes: introverts/extroverts (Myers-Briggs test)Alfred Adler - Individual Psychologystriving for superiority & the inferiority complexeffects of birth order on personality developmentKaren Horney – Early FeministBasic anxietyNeurotic coping strategies
7 Biological Perspectives Biological influences on personalitybehavior is determined by genesbehavioral tendencies are inheritedTwin studiestwins are more alike in certain characteristics than siblings and unrelated personsSome biologically based traitsextraversion vs introversionoptimistic/positive vs pessimistic/negativeexploratory/risk-taking vs cautious/anxious
8 Behavioral/Learning Perspectives Behaviorismpsychology should study only behaviorobservable, can be studied scientificallyrejected notion of the unconsciousPersonality is behaviorbehavior is the result of classical or operant conditioningdeterminism: behavior is caused by environmental stimuli and situations (no free will)behavior follows “laws” of reinforcement and past experience
9 Cognitive/Social Learning Theory Cognitive modelpeople think, problem-solve, reason, etc.Perceptual indiosyncrasiesExplanatory StylesPerceptions are individualAttributions, locus of control, learned helplessnessSocial- Cognitive Learningwe learn by observing others behave and observing the consequences that followcan choose to follow model or not
10 Traits and Skills Introversion-Extroversion Jung’s 16 PFQ-test dataGeorge Allport’s Trait PsychologyThe Big 5O. C. E. A. N.Henry Murray’s Needs and PressesExpressive StylesSkills & Intelligence
11 Humanistic-Existential Perspective Humanismemphasis on the unique qualities of individual & on free willopposed to propositions of psychoanalysts and behavioristsPerson-centered theory - Carl Rogersself-concept (who you believe you are)congruence vs incongruence (being your true self)Existential AnxietyAnxiety: Rollo MayMeaning of life – Victor FranklSelf-Actualization - Abraham Maslowemphasized healthy aspects of human behaviorself-actualization (need to fulfill your potential)
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