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Personality: Some Definitions

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1 Personality: Some Definitions
An individual’s relatively distinct & consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Personality Traits dispositions to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations Personality Psychology The scientific study of the psychological forces that people uniquely themselves.

2 The Main Themes of Course
Interactionist model of behavior Genes, environment, experiences Behavior is Multi-faceted Many causes for behavior Behavior varies in different situations Diversity & Commonality Idiographic & nomothetic Consistency & variability Findings based on research Empirical studies Replication of studies Generalizability of findings Applicable to real life Validity of theories in personal experiences Useful in predicting or explaining behavior

3 The 8 Basic Aspects Psychoanalytic Neo-Analytic Biological Behaviorist
Freud Neo-Analytic Jung, Horney, Adler Biological Pavlov, Eysenck Behaviorist Skinner, Dollard, Miller Cognitive Kelly, Bandura Trait Allport, Cattell, Eysenk Humanistic Rogers, Maslow Interactionist Murray, Mischel

4 Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud
Defense Mechanisms Conflicts: Id & Super Ego Goal is to reduce anxiety Common defenses Denial, repression, rationalization Psychoanalytic theory unconscious drives & motives sexual & aggressive urges emphasis on early childhood experiences Structure of personality id (pleasure principle) ego (reality principle) super ego (moral values/beliefs)

5 Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud
Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital Emphasis placed on early development Trauma at a stage leads to “fixation” Consciousness (levels of awareness) conscious, preconscious, unconscious Traumatic early childhood experiences repressed into the unconscious

6 Neo-Analysts Carl Jung - Analytical Psychology
Archetypes & the collective unconscious types: introverts/extroverts (Myers-Briggs test) Alfred Adler - Individual Psychology striving for superiority & the inferiority complex effects of birth order on personality development Karen Horney – Early Feminist Basic anxiety Neurotic coping strategies

7 Biological Perspectives
Biological influences on personality behavior is determined by genes behavioral tendencies are inherited Twin studies twins are more alike in certain characteristics than siblings and unrelated persons Some biologically based traits extraversion vs introversion optimistic/positive vs pessimistic/negative exploratory/risk-taking vs cautious/anxious

8 Behavioral/Learning Perspectives
Behaviorism psychology should study only behavior observable, can be studied scientifically rejected notion of the unconscious Personality is behavior behavior is the result of classical or operant conditioning determinism: behavior is caused by environmental stimuli and situations (no free will) behavior follows “laws” of reinforcement and past experience

9 Cognitive/Social Learning Theory
Cognitive model people think, problem-solve, reason, etc. Perceptual indiosyncrasies Explanatory Styles Perceptions are individual Attributions, locus of control, learned helplessness Social- Cognitive Learning we learn by observing others behave and observing the consequences that follow can choose to follow model or not

10 Traits and Skills Introversion-Extroversion
Jung’s 16 PF Q-test data George Allport’s Trait Psychology The Big 5 O. C. E. A. N. Henry Murray’s Needs and Presses Expressive Styles Skills & Intelligence

11 Humanistic-Existential Perspective
Humanism emphasis on the unique qualities of individual & on free will opposed to propositions of psychoanalysts and behaviorists Person-centered theory - Carl Rogers self-concept (who you believe you are) congruence vs incongruence (being your true self) Existential Anxiety Anxiety: Rollo May Meaning of life – Victor Frankl Self-Actualization - Abraham Maslow emphasized healthy aspects of human behavior self-actualization (need to fulfill your potential)

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