Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE TO WHAT EXTENT DID WOMEN PARTICIPATE IN THE RENAISSANCE TO WHAT EXTENT DID WOMEN PARTICIPATE IN THE RENAISSANCE DISCUSS HOW RENAISSANCE IDEAS ARE EXPRESSED IN THE ITALIAN ART OF THE PEROID DISCUSS HOW RENAISSANCE IDEAS ARE EXPRESSED IN THE ITALIAN ART OF THE PEROID

2 CONTRAST WITH LATE MIDDLE AGES MEDIEVALMEDIEVAL –Religion Dominates –Man should be well versed in one subject –Latin –Handwritten –Gothic –DivorceNo –Marriage – economic

3 RENAISSANCERENAISSANCE –Humanism –Virtu –New Monarchs –Vernacular –Individual –Greek and Roman Classics –Bronze –Secular –Merchants –Printing Press –Marriages -- Romance

4 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE Florence (Quattrocentro)Florence (Quattrocentro) –Massive Patronage (Medici Family) –Center of Renaissance in 14 th and 15 th Centuries –Medicis – Banking Rome (Cinquecento or High Renaissance)Rome (Cinquecento or High Renaissance) –Renaissance Popes – Secular –Pope Alexander VI –St. Peters Cathedral PaintingPainting –Perspective – 3-D effects –Chiaroscuro – Dark and light colors to create illusion of depth SculptureSculpture –Free standing to be seen in the round –Glorified body (nude) –Greek and Roman influence ArchitectureArchitecture –Used Greek temple, columns, Roman arches and domes –Simplicity and balance

5 Lorenzo GhibertiLorenzo Ghiberti –Bronze doors at Florence Baptistry DonatelloDonatello –Bronze statue of David –Free standing and in the nude Sandro BotticelliSandro Botticelli –Birth of Venus –Classical Mythology Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci –Renaissance Man –Mona Lisa and Last Supper RaphaelRaphael –School of Athens MichelangeloMichelangelo –Statue of David glorifies human body –Pieta is most perfect marble statue –Dome of St. Peters Cathedral –Sistine Chapel

6 MannerismMannerism –Reaction against Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color –Used unnatural colors while shapes were elongated or exaggerated El Greco (Spain)El Greco (Spain) –Greatest of the Mannerists –Toledo uses elongated figures and weird pigments

7 ITALIAN HUMANISM Revival of antiquity (Greece and Rome)Revival of antiquity (Greece and Rome) Virtu – Excelling in all of ones pursuitsVirtu – Excelling in all of ones pursuits Civic Humanism – Education should prepare leaders to be active in civic affairsCivic Humanism – Education should prepare leaders to be active in civic affairs PetrarchPetrarch –Father of Humanism –Sonnets to Laura –One of the Big 3 (Dante and Boccacio) DanteDante –Divine Comedy –Vernacular BoccacioBoccacio –Decameron –Social Behavior of Youth during Black Plague (Sex)

8 Lorenzo VallaLorenzo Valla –Expert on Latin Language –On the False Donation of Constantine proved land given to Church was based on fraud –Latin Vulgate errors discovered Pico della MirandolaPico della Mirandola –Oration on the Dignity of Man –Humans have potential for greatness –Free will Baldassare CastiglioneBaldassare Castiglione –The Book of the Courtier –True Renaissance Man has physical and intellectual ability living an active life

9 NORTHERN RENAISSANCE Christian HumanismChristian Humanism –Emphasis on early Church Writings –How to improve society and reform the Church –Led to criticisms of the Church ErasmusErasmus –Master of the Greek Language –In Praise of Folly wanted to reform the Church –Satirized the immorality and hypocrisy of the Church –Influenced Martin Luther Sir Thomas MoreSir Thomas More –Utopia –Accumulation of property was root cause of societys ills William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare Miquel CervantesMiquel Cervantes –Don Quixote

10 Flemish Style of ArtFlemish Style of Art –More detail –Oil Paints –Preoccupied with death –Ordinary People Jan Van EyckJan Van Eyck –Arnolfini and His Wife Peter BrueghelPeter Brueghel –Focused on Ordinary People –Peasant Dance, Peasant Wedding, etc. Hans HolbeinHans Holbein –Premier Portrait Painter –Henry VIII Fugger FamilyFugger Family –Patron of Northern Renaissance –Banking

11 RENAISSANCE WOMEN Wealthy WomenWealthy Women –Access to Education –Ornaments to their husbands –Women were to be pleasing to the man –Sexual Double standard Christine de PisanChristine de Pisan –Chronicled the accomplishments of great women in history –Womens survival guide Isabella dEsteIsabella dEste –Set example to NOT be an ornament –Patron of the arts –Founded school for young women MarriageMarriage –Based on economic considerations –Dowries –Earlier marriages –Foundling Hospitals

12 DivorceDivorce –Very limited Important RulersImportant Rulers –Isabella I of Spain –Mary Tudor of England –Elizabeth I of England –Catherine de Medicis of France

13 NEW MONARCHS Reduced the power of the Nobles Reduced the power of the Nobles Hired Mercenary armies Hired Mercenary armies Reduced the power of the clergy Reduced the power of the clergy Created efficient bureaucracies Created efficient bureaucracies Increased power of bourgeoisie Increased power of bourgeoisie Towns gained power Towns gained power

14 FRANCE Louis XI the Spider KingLouis XI the Spider King –Used Diplomacy –Large Royal army –Destroyed Nobles –Increased Taxes –Encouraged economic growth (mercantilism) Francis IFrancis I –Concordat of Bologna –Monarch appoints Bishops (Gallican Church) –Taille – Tax on all property and land

15 ENGLAND War of the RosesWar of the Roses –Houses of York vs. Lancaster –War between Nobles –Henry VII removes Richard III and starts the Tudor Dynasty Henry VIIHenry VII –Reduced power of Nobles thru Star Chamber –Used diplomacy

16 SPAIN Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of CastileFerdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile –Unify Spain –Catholic –Reconquista –Columbus –Spanish Inquisition

17 Holy Roman Empire The Hapsburg EmpireThe Hapsburg Empire –Consisted of 300 autonomous German States –Emperor did not have centralized control –The Golden Bull Charles VCharles V –Most powerful ruler in 16 th century –Austrian Hapsburg and Spanish Empire –Sacked Rome ending Renaissance –Tried to stop the Protestant Reformation

18 AGE OF EXPLORATION DESCRIBE AND ANALYZE HOW OVERSEAS EXPANSION BY EUROPEAN STATES AFFECTED GLOBAL TRADE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS FROM 1600 TO 1715 DESCRIBE AND ANALYZE HOW OVERSEAS EXPANSION BY EUROPEAN STATES AFFECTED GLOBAL TRADE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS FROM 1600 TO 1715 Rise in New Monarchs led to competition Rise in New Monarchs led to competition Renaissance led more knowledge and adventure Renaissance led more knowledge and adventure

19 ADVANCES IN LEARNING & TECHNOLOGY CartographyCartography AstronomyAstronomy CompassCompass Quadrant – latitudeQuadrant – latitude Astrolabe – latitudeAstrolabe – latitude CaravelCaravel RudderRudder WeaponsWeapons

20 PORTUGAL All water route to AsiaAll water route to Asia Prince Henry the NavigatorPrince Henry the Navigator Vasco da GamaVasco da Gama BrazilBrazil

21 SPANISH EXPLORATION Gold, Glory and the GospelGold, Glory and the Gospel ColumbusColumbus Bartolomew de las CasasBartolomew de las Casas Amerigo VespucciAmerigo Vespucci Treaty of TordesillasTreaty of Tordesillas Ferdinand MagellanFerdinand Magellan ConquistadoresConquistadores

22 OLD IMPERIALISM MercantilismMercantilism Encomienda SystemEncomienda System MestizosMestizos CreolesCreoles JesuitsJesuits AsientoAsiento

23 COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION Increased in population leads to more consumersIncreased in population leads to more consumers Price revolutionPrice revolution –Long slow upward trend in prices –Increase in food prices –Increase in volume of money –Increase in supply of goods Rise in capitalism led by bourgeoisieRise in capitalism led by bourgeoisie BankingBanking –Fuggers in Germany –Medicis in Italy –Antwerp (16 th Century) –Amsterdam (17 th Century)

24 Hanseatic LeagueHanseatic League –German states that controlled trade Joint-Stock CompaniesJoint-Stock Companies –Investors pooled resources for common purpose –Virginia New Industries and GoodsNew Industries and Goods –Textiles, Mining, Printing, Shipbuilding, Weapons –Sugar (most expensive), rice and tea

25 MercantilismMercantilism –Nations sought self-sufficiency –Export more than import –Bullionism – Acquire Gold –Trades goal was keep gold from going to competing company

26 PRICE REVOLUTION The emergence of nation states led to taxationThe emergence of nation states led to taxation Exploration created empiresExploration created empires Prices rose gradually in the 16 th centuryPrices rose gradually in the 16 th century More population demanded more goods which increased pricesMore population demanded more goods which increased prices Influx of gold for the New WorldInflux of gold for the New World InflationInflation BourgeoisieBourgeoisie

27 LIFE IN 16 th & 17 th CENTURIES Countryside Countryside Lords/Nobles at the top Lords/Nobles at the top Peasants owned land Peasants owned land Landless workers Landless workers Towns Towns Bourgeoisie were the wealthiest Bourgeoisie were the wealthiest Skilled craftsman belonged to guilds Skilled craftsman belonged to guilds Low-skilled jobs for low wages Low-skilled jobs for low wages

28 THE FAMILY NuclearNuclear Age of marriage higher (economics)Age of marriage higher (economics) –Dowries –Permission needed ChildrenChildren –Average number of kids 6 –Post 1750 an increase in illegitimate births WomenWomen –Marriage was an escaped from hard life of work

29 Child CareChild Care –Poor women breast fed –Wealthier women used wet nurses –Foundling Hospitals –Spare the rod and spoil the child –Girls were sent to the city EducationEducation –Elementary education for boys and girls –Religious instruction –Prussia had compulsory education

30 Life ExpectancyLife Expectancy –Increase from –No plague –Sanitation –Vaccinations –Clothing –Better food –Potato –Meat, fish and alcohol MedicalMedical –Smallpox –Edward Jenner

31 WITCH HUNTS Belief in MagicBelief in Magic ChurchChurch WomenWomen Scientific RevolutionScientific Revolution MedicineMedicine TrialsTrials ReformationReformation

32 PROTESTANT REFORMATION

33 CAUSES Crisis in the ChurchCrisis in the Church –Babylonian Captivity –Great Schism –Concilliar Movement Give Church Councils more power than Pope (Rejected)Give Church Councils more power than Pope (Rejected) Corruption in the ChurchCorruption in the Church –Simony –Pluralism –Absenteeism –Nepotism –Sale of Indulgences

34 –Moral decline Pope Alexander VIPope Alexander VI 20% of priests had concubines20% of priests had concubines –Clerical Ignorance John WyclifJohn Wyclif –Bible, Personal Communion & fewer sacraments –Lollards –John Hus Thomas a KempisThomas a Kempis –Brethren of the Common Life –Live a simple life and make religion personal

35 ErasmusErasmus –In Praise of Folly –Criticized corruption in the church and hypocrisy Renaissance HumanismRenaissance Humanism –Criticized Church and validity of the Vulgate –Emphasized secularism and individualism, not religion

36 MARTIN LUTHER Johann TetzelJohann Tetzel –Authorized to sale indulgences by Pope Leo X (St. Peters) 95 Theses95 Theses –Wittenberg –Criticized the sale of indulgences Debate with Johann EcksDebate with Johann Ecks –Denied infallibility of the pope and Church councils Theology of ReformTheology of Reform –Salvation by Faith alone –Bible is sole authority –Only 2 sacraments –Priesthood of all believers –Encouraged German princes to reform the church –Rejected celibacy (Marriage)

37 Diet of WormsDiet of Worms –Charles V demands Luther recant –Here I stand Confessions of Augsburg (Lutheranism)Confessions of Augsburg (Lutheranism) SpreadSpread –Northern German states –Denmark and Sweden Peasants WarPeasants War –Twelve Articles demanded and end to serfdom and feudalism –Inspired by Luther –Luther supported German princes

38 Schmalkalden LeagueSchmalkalden League –Lutheran Princes unite against Charles V Peace of Augsburg (1555)Peace of Augsburg (1555) –Cuius regio, eius religio –German princes could choose Lutheranism or Catholicism for their region

39 CALVINISM Institutes of the Christian ReligionInstitutes of the Christian Religion –Calvins foundational work PredestinationPredestination The ElectThe Elect Geneva = TheocracyGeneva = Theocracy Protestant Work EthicProtestant Work Ethic –Hard work, results in financial success because God likes you PresbyteriansPresbyterians –John Knox –Scotland

40 HuguenotsHuguenots –French Calvinists –Nobles Dutch Reformed ChurchDutch Reformed Church –Set the stage for revolt against Philip II PuritansPuritans –England –America

41 ENGLAND Henry VIIIHenry VIII –Defense of the Seven Sacraments –Defender of the Faith MarriagesMarriages –Catherine of Aragon –Anne Boleyn Church of England (Anglican Church)Church of England (Anglican Church) –Pope refuses annulment (Charles V) –Henry breaks away (Thomas Cranmer)

42 Act of Supremacy (1534)Act of Supremacy (1534) –King head of the Church –Confiscated Church lands –Monasteries closed down Act of Succession (1534)Act of Succession (1534) –Oath of loyalty –Thomas More executed Pilgrimage of GracePilgrimage of Grace –Opposition to Henrys Reformation Statute of Six Articles (1539)Statute of Six Articles (1539) –Maintained most of Catholic doctrines

43 Edward VIEdward VI –Adopted Calvinism –Clergy could marry and removed iconic images –Salvation by faith alone and 2 sacraments Mary TudorMary Tudor –Returned England to Catholicism –Marian Exiles = Protestants fleeing –Bloody Mary –Married to Philip II of Spain Elizabeth IElizabeth I –Daughter of Anne Boleyn who developed Protestantism in England –Politique between Anglicans and Puritans

44 Elizabethan SettlementElizabethan Settlement –Book of Common Prayer –Catholicism remained but in private –English services –Clergy not allowed to marry –Required church services Thirty-Nine Articles (1563)Thirty-Nine Articles (1563) –Defined the creed of the Anglican Church Mary StuartMary Stuart

45 OTHERS AnabaptistsAnabaptists –No connection to any state –Refused to take oaths, pay taxes or serve in the military –Rejected the Trinity –Polygamy –Burned books –Munster = Anabaptists leaders executed QuakersQuakers

46 Ulrich ZwingliUlrich Zwingli –1 st leader of the Swiss Reformation (Zurich) –Eucharist was only symbolic –Colloquy of Marburg Split with Luther over EucharistSplit with Luther over Eucharist

47 WOMEN Luther believed women should be home taking care of the childrenLuther believed women should be home taking care of the children Calvin believed in maintaining the moral orderCalvin believed in maintaining the moral order Suppressed common law marriagesSuppressed common law marriages Marriage should emphasize loveMarriage should emphasize love Bible reading increased womens literacyBible reading increased womens literacy Protestant Women lost opportunities in church services, property ownership and legal transactionsProtestant Women lost opportunities in church services, property ownership and legal transactions

48 Catholic women had church opportunities in religious ordersCatholic women had church opportunities in religious orders Angela Merci founded the Ursuline OrderAngela Merci founded the Ursuline Order –Provide education and religious training –Combat heresy through education Teresa de AvilaTeresa de Avila –Believed in a direct relationship with God through prayer and contemplation

49 CATHOLIC REFORMATION

50 CAUSES Pope Paul III wanted to improve Church through discipline and existing doctrinesPope Paul III wanted to improve Church through discipline and existing doctrines Response to Protestant gainsResponse to Protestant gains Response to critics in the Church that abuses had to be reformedResponse to critics in the Church that abuses had to be reformed

51 COUNCIL OF TRENT Scripture, traditions and writings are equalScripture, traditions and writings are equal Salvation by faith and good worksSalvation by faith and good works All 7 sacraments valid (transubstantiation)All 7 sacraments valid (transubstantiation) Monasteries, Celibacy and PurgatoryMonasteries, Celibacy and Purgatory Index of Forbidden BooksIndex of Forbidden Books Ended AbusesEnded Abuses –Sale of Indulgences –Sale of Church offices –Seminaries

52 NEW RELIGIOUS ORDERS Ignatius LoyolaIgnatius Loyola –Organized Jesuits in military fashion –Spiritual Exercises was guidebook for Jesuits JesuitsJesuits –Reform the Church through education –Spread the Gospel to pagans –Fight Protestantism InquisitionsInquisitions –Persecution of Spanish Jews and Moors –Accused Jews of killing Christ Catholic Reformation brought Southern Germany and Easter Europe back to the faithCatholic Reformation brought Southern Germany and Easter Europe back to the faith Jesuit schools best in EuropeJesuit schools best in Europe

53 BAROQUE ART Demonstrates the glory and power of the Catholic ChurchDemonstrates the glory and power of the Catholic Church Emotionalism and ColorEmotionalism and Color Emphasized grandeur, emotion and unity surrounding a certain themeEmphasized grandeur, emotion and unity surrounding a certain theme BerniniBernini –Architecture and Sculpture –The Ecstasy of St. Teresa CarvaggioCarvaggio –Highly emotional –Biblical scenes Peter Paul ReubensPeter Paul Reubens –Christian subjects, Roman goddesses and nudes

54 RELIGIOUS WARS

55 PHILIP II EscorialEscorial –Wanted to re-impose Catholicism –Palace to symbolize his commitment to Catholicism Battle of LepantoBattle of Lepanto –War against the Turks –Defeated Turkish navy –Ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean The Dutch Revolt (Netherlands)The Dutch Revolt (Netherlands) –William I led 17 provinces against Spanish Inquisition –United Provinces of the Netherlands formed was blow to Philip II –Spanish Netherlands remained Catholic –Amsterdam becomes commercial capital of the world

56 SPAIN VS. ENGLAND Queen Mary Tudor tried to re-impose Catholicism in EnglandQueen Mary Tudor tried to re-impose Catholicism in England Queen Elizabeth I reversed Marys decisions with the Elizabethan SettlementQueen Elizabeth I reversed Marys decisions with the Elizabethan Settlement Elizabeth help the Protestant NetherlandsElizabeth help the Protestant Netherlands Spain wanted revenge for the Dutch Revolt and Mary StuartSpain wanted revenge for the Dutch Revolt and Mary Stuart Spanish ArmadaSpanish Armada –Spanish navy destroyed –England becomes the worlds naval power –Spain declines

57 FRENCH CIVIL WARS Catherine de Medicis dominatedCatherine de Medicis dominated Nobles became HuguenotsNobles became Huguenots France was devidedFrance was devided –Bourbons = Huguenots –Guise = Ultra-Catholic –Valois = Catholic ruling family St. Bartholomew Day Massacre (1572)St. Bartholomew Day Massacre (1572) –Marriage between Valois princess and leader of Huguenots (Henry of Navarre) –Catherine de Medici orders the massacre of the Calvinists

58 War of the Three HenrysWar of the Three Henrys –Civil War among the 3 groups Henry IV (Henry Navarre)Henry IV (Henry Navarre) –Ended the War of the Three Henrys –Politique –Paris is worth a Mass Edict of NantesEdict of Nantes –Religious toleration granted to Huguenots –Private worship allowed –Allowed access to education and jobs –Huguenots kept 200 fortified towns creating a state within a state

59 THIRTY YEARS WAR Defenestration of PragueDefenestration of Prague –Triggers war 1 st phase of war in Bohemia –Restrictions placed on Protestants Edict of RestitutionEdict of Restitution –Declaration by HRE that all church territory was to restored to Catholic Church repealing the Peace of Augsburg Gustavus AdolphusGustavus Adolphus –Swedish King pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia –Ended Hapsburgs dream of reuniting Germany as Catholic Cardinal RichelieuCardinal Richelieu –In the 4 th phase Richelieu allies France (C) with the Protestant forces to defeat the Hapsburgs (C) –This was a political decision, not religious –Wanted to weaken the Hapsburg Empire

60 Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Westphalia –Ended 30 Years War –Renewal of Peace of Augsburg adding Calvinism –Netherlands and Switzerland gains independence –300+ German states gain sovereignty –France and Brandenburg (Prussia) gain territory –The Hapsburgs are divided: Spain and Austria ResultsResults –Germany physically devastated –Germany remains divided politically and religiously –Ended religious wars –France becomes dominant power

61 AGE OF ABSOLUTISM

62 PHILOSOPHY Jean BodinJean Bodin –Only Absolutism could provide order and force Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes –Humans are poor, nasty and brutish –Favored Enlightened despots Bishop Jacques BossuetBishop Jacques Bossuet –Advocated Divine Rights of Kings –Believed King was placed on the throne by God

63 FRANCE France was divided into three EstatesFrance was divided into three Estates –1 st Estate = Clergy –2 nd Estate = Nobles –3 rd Estate = Bourgeoisie, Urban workers & peasants (95%) Hierarchy was based on rank and privilegeHierarchy was based on rank and privilege AgrarianAgrarian Cultural centerCultural center

64 HENRY IV 1 st King of the Bourbons1 st King of the Bourbons NobilityNobility –Nobility of the Sword –Nobility of the Robe = New nobles who purchased title from the King Duke of SullyDuke of Sully –Mercantilism –Encouraged industry –Reduced debt –Improved transportation system (Roads and Canals)

65 LOUIS XIII Cardinal RichelieuCardinal Richelieu Intendant SystemIntendant System –Weakens nobility –Replaces local officials with civil servants (Intendants) –Loyal to the King Subdues HuguenotsSubdues Huguenots –Removes walls and armies Thirty Years WarThirty Years War

66 LOUIS XIV Letat, cest moi = I am the StateLetat, cest moi = I am the State The Sun KingThe Sun King Cardinal MazarinCardinal Mazarin –Ruled France while Louis XIV was a child –Angered the Fronde (Nobles) FrondeFronde –Revolted during Louis XIV childhood –Louis determined to control Nobles from then on Corvee = Forced laborCorvee = Forced labor

67 VersaillesVersailles –Most impressive palace (Baroque) –Cost 60% of annual budget –Controlled Noblity Edict of FountainbleauEdict of Fountainbleau –Revoked Edict of Nantes –Hugenots fled France Jean Baptiste ColbertJean Baptiste Colbert –Financial Minister (Mercantilism) –Bullionism –Transportation system improved –Trade increased –Industrial power

68 War of DevolutionWar of Devolution –Louis XIV invaded Spanish Netherlands –Wanted throne for this wife –Gets Alsace War of the League of AugsburgWar of the League of Augsburg –William of Orange (England) joins the League to block France –Starts Anglo-French rivalry

69 War of Spanish SuccessionWar of Spanish Succession –Charles II of Spain gives throne to grandson of Louis XIV –Grand Alliance opposes France –Treaty of Utrecht Maintains balance of powerMaintains balance of power Ends Louis XIV expansionismEnds Louis XIV expansionism Britain gets Asiento and GibraltarBritain gets Asiento and Gibraltar Prussian King recognizedPrussian King recognized Spanish and Bourbon dynasties cannot be unitedSpanish and Bourbon dynasties cannot be united Destroys French economyDestroys French economy England grows in powerEngland grows in power

70 SPAIN Spain declines in 17 th CenturySpain declines in 17 th Century Economy hurt by loss of Jews and MoorsEconomy hurt by loss of Jews and Moors Spanish trade cut 60% by Brits and DutchSpanish trade cut 60% by Brits and Dutch Spanish treasury is bankruptSpanish treasury is bankrupt Taxes hurt the peasantsTaxes hurt the peasants Inflation from the price revolution hurt industriesInflation from the price revolution hurt industries Military defeatsMilitary defeats –Spanish Armada –Thirty Years War –Treaty of Pyrenees –War of Spanish Succession

71 EASTERN VS. WESTERN WESTERN ABSOLUTISMWESTERN ABSOLUTISM –Divine Right of Kings –Absolute Monarchs not subordinate to Assemblies –Nobility brought under control –Government officials appointed by King –Control of Catholic Church –Secret police –Early Totalitarianism

72 EASTERN ABSOLUTISMEASTERN ABSOLUTISM –Based on a powerful nobility, weak middle class and an oppressed peasantry composed of serfs –Kings imposed taxes without consent of their subjects –Maintained standing armies

73 SERFDOM Serfdom strong in Eastern EuropeSerfdom strong in Eastern Europe Drop in population created labor shortages (Black Death)Drop in population created labor shortages (Black Death) Nobles demanded kings and princes to restrict movement of peasantsNobles demanded kings and princes to restrict movement of peasants Heavy labor obligations on serfs and non-serfs such as the robot that required 3-4 days a month of work for the nobleHeavy labor obligations on serfs and non-serfs such as the robot that required 3-4 days a month of work for the noble Hereditary serfdom establishedHereditary serfdom established Eastern nobles power allowed them to keep their serfsEastern nobles power allowed them to keep their serfs

74 AUSTRIAN EMPIRE The ruler of Austria = HapsburgsThe ruler of Austria = Hapsburgs Austrian Hapsburgs controlled Naples, Milan, Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), and HungaryAustrian Hapsburgs controlled Naples, Milan, Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), and Hungary Hungary was the largest part of the dominion whose dominant group were the MagyarsHungary was the largest part of the dominion whose dominant group were the Magyars It was a multinational empire with Germans, Italians, Czechs, Hungarians, Serbians, Romanians, etc includedIt was a multinational empire with Germans, Italians, Czechs, Hungarians, Serbians, Romanians, etc included The siege of Vienna repelled the Turks in 1683 ending the Ottoman influence in Central EuropeThe siege of Vienna repelled the Turks in 1683 ending the Ottoman influence in Central Europe Emperor Charles VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction (1713) that the empire is never to be divided and passed to his daughter Maria Theresa in 1740.Emperor Charles VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction (1713) that the empire is never to be divided and passed to his daughter Maria Theresa in 1740.

75 PRUSSIA Hohenzollerns were the ruling familyHohenzollerns were the ruling family Marriages allowed the Hohenzollerns to gain territoryMarriages allowed the Hohenzollerns to gain territory Frederick William the Great Elector ( )Frederick William the Great Elector ( ) –Religious toleration granted to Jews and Catholics –Created the most efficient army in Europe –Junkers were the backbone of the Prussian Military officers (Nobles) Frederick IFrederick I –1 st King of Prussia –Encouraged higher education –Fought two wars with Louis XIV to maintain balance of power

76 Frederick William IFrederick William I –Made Prussia the Sparta of the North –Doubled the size of the military –80% of revenue went to the military –Army was seen as a deterence –Established schools for peasant children –Civil service advancement based on merit

77 RUSSIA Ivan III (The Great)Ivan III (The Great) –Ended Mongol domination of Muscovy –Established Moscow as Third Rome for the Eastern Orthodox Church –The Czar (Tsar) claimed divine right absolute power –Fought with the Boyars (nobles) for power Ivan IV (The Terrible)Ivan IV (The Terrible) –Increased the size of Russia –Cossacks were a problem –Executed Nobles who opposed him –Increased serfdom

78 –Period of famine, wars and power struggles followed Ivan IV known as the Time of Troubles CossacksCossacks Sweden and PolandSweden and Poland Michael RomanovMichael Romanov –Selected by the Boyars to be the new Czar –Expanded empire to the Pacific Ocean –The Cossack revolts led to more restrictions on the serfs –Old Believers opposed the influx of Western European religious groups into Russia –Began Westernizing Russia

79 Peter the Great ( )Peter the Great ( ) –The revolt of the Strelski was defeated by Peter –Expanded the army by requiring serfs to serve 25 year enlistments 75% of budget75% of budget Royal military academiesRoyal military academies –The Great Northern War against Sweden gave Russia Latvia and Estonia that will become is Window on the West in the Baltic Sea –He will import western technology and experts to Westernize Russia –Peter ruled by decree –The Table of Ranks set education standards for civil servants –Orthodox Church became a part of the government under his control –The Winter Palace in St. Petersburg was to model Versailles

80 OTTOMAN EMPIRE Could not maintain possessions in the Balkans and Central Europe because of Russian and Austrian advancesCould not maintain possessions in the Balkans and Central Europe because of Russian and Austrian advances Suleiman the Magnificent nearly conquered ½ of Eastern EuropeSuleiman the Magnificent nearly conquered ½ of Eastern Europe The Janissary corps were Christian slaves selected to loyal servants in the Ottoman bureaucracyThe Janissary corps were Christian slaves selected to loyal servants in the Ottoman bureaucracy As Muslim religious leaders gained influence they rejected European ideas speeding up its decline as the Sick Man of EuropeAs Muslim religious leaders gained influence they rejected European ideas speeding up its decline as the Sick Man of Europe

81 POLAND Liberum veto required a unanimous vote in the Polish parliament to make changesLiberum veto required a unanimous vote in the Polish parliament to make changes Russia and Prussia encouraged nobles to invoke liberum veto to weaken PolandRussia and Prussia encouraged nobles to invoke liberum veto to weaken Poland Poland carved up by Russia, Austria and Prussia by 1800.Poland carved up by Russia, Austria and Prussia by 1800.

82 CONSTITUTIONALISM

83 STUART ENGLAND James IJames I –Believed in divine right of kings No bishop, No KingNo bishop, No King –Dissolved Parliament over taxes –Guy Fawkes Plot –King James Bible Charles ICharles I –Divine Right of Kings –Wanted to rule without Parliament –Taxes and Quartering of troops

84 Petition of Right (1628)Petition of Right (1628) –Parliament wanted basic legal rights in return for taxes –Only Parliament can levy taxes –No imprisonment without due process of law –Habeas corpus –No quartering of troops –No martial law during peacetime –King agrees to get taxes Dissolves Parliament (1629)Dissolves Parliament (1629) –Parliament refuses to raise taxes –Rules without Parliament –Raises money using Medieval forms of taxation –Ship Money

85 Archbishop LaudArchbishop Laud –Drives Puritans out of Church of England The Short Parliament (1640)The Short Parliament (1640) –Scottish revolt over English Prayer Book –Charles needed taxes but is disbanded over not acceptance of Petition of Right The Long Parliament ( )The Long Parliament ( ) –Scottish victory –Parliament cannot be dissolved –Archbishop Laud executed –Star Chamber abolished –Common law over Royal law

86 OLIVER CROMWELL Charles tries to arrest Puritan leaders in Parliament starting the English Civil WarCharles tries to arrest Puritan leaders in Parliament starting the English Civil War CavaliersCavaliers –Supporters of the King (Anglican Church) –Old Nobility –Irish Catholics RoundheadsRoundheads –Puritans and Presbyterians –London –Businessmen –Scotland Oliver CromwellOliver Cromwell –Commander of Roundheads New Model Army –Defeated Charles I at Nasby –Stops Scottish invasion

87 Prides PurgePrides Purge –New Model Army removes non-Puritans from Parliament –Rump Parliament Charles I beheadedCharles I beheaded New Sects EmergeNew Sects Emerge –Levellers = Social and Political Reforms –Diggers = Rejected Parliaments authority and private ownership of land –Quakers = Inner light Rejected Church authorityRejected Church authority PacifistsPacifists Allowed women to preachAllowed women to preach The Interregnum = No KingThe Interregnum = No King –The Commonwealth established a Republic –Military Dictatorship in reality

88 The ProtectorateThe Protectorate –Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell –Dissolves Rump Parliament –England divided in 12 military districts –Denies religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics –Jews encouraged to return Military AccomplishmentsMilitary Accomplishments –Violently puts down Irish revolt –2/3 of Catholic owned land given to Protestants –Conquers Scotland

89 Puritan RegulationsPuritan Regulations –Enforcement of Public morality –No theatres, dancing, or sports –Strict observance of the Sabbath –Press censored –Led to the restoration of Charles II

90 RESTORATION Charles IICharles II –Agreed the Kings power was not absolute –Religious toleration granted Tories and WhigsTories and Whigs –Tories = Nobles, Gentry, Anglicans, pro-Monarchy –Whigs = Middle-class, Anglicans, pro-Parliament The Clarendon Code (1661)The Clarendon Code (1661) –Restriction on Catholics and Puritans –The Test Act (1673) Excluded from voting, teaching, preaching, government those unwilling to accept the sacraments of the Church of EnglandExcluded from voting, teaching, preaching, government those unwilling to accept the sacraments of the Church of England

91 CatholicismCatholicism –Charles II granted religious toleration to Catholics Deal with Louis XIV for $Deal with Louis XIV for $ –Popish Plot = Titus Oates –Dissolved Parliament over succession crisis Law denying succession to James II who was CatholicLaw denying succession to James II who was Catholic Habeas Corpus Act (1679)Habeas Corpus Act (1679) –Prisoners be in court –Just cause for imprisonment –Speedy trials –No Double jeopardy ScotlandScotland –Charles II names himself head of the Church of Scotland –Wanted to impose Anglican Church –Killing Time in Scotland

92 James II ( )James II ( ) –Wanted to return England to Catholicism –Granted Religious freedom to all –Starts the Glorious Revolution

93 GLORIOUS REVOLUTION 1688 Parliament wanted a Constitutional MonarchyParliament wanted a Constitutional Monarchy Declaration of IndulgenceDeclaration of Indulgence –Grants freedom of worship to Catholics –Catholic heir is born James II abdicates throneJames II abdicates throne William and MaryWilliam and Mary –Parliament declares them joint monarchs –Agrees to the Bill of Rights

94 The Bill of RightsThe Bill of Rights –King cannot be Roman Catholic –Laws made with consent of Parliament –Parliament has freedom of speech –Taxation only with Parliament approval –Due process of law –Right to bear arms –Right of petition –No dissolving of Parliament by monarch John LockeJohn Locke –Defends Glorious Revolution –People create a government to protect their natural rights –Life, Liberty and Property Act of Settlement (1701)Act of Settlement (1701) –If no successor then crown goes to the House of Hanover –German princes

95 The Cabinet SystemThe Cabinet System –The leading ministers selected by the majority party of the House of Commons make common policy –They conduct the business of the country under the Prime Minister Robert WalpoleRobert Walpole –1 st Prime Minister –Cabinet was responsible to House of Commons and not the King

96 NETHERLANDS Government controlled by bourgeoisieGovernment controlled by bourgeoisie Confederation of 7 provincesConfederation of 7 provinces Each province was self-governing and represented in the Estates GeneralEach province was self-governing and represented in the Estates General Each province elected a stadholder (governor)Each province elected a stadholder (governor) In times of crisis they elected one stadholder to be the military leader (House of Orange)In times of crisis they elected one stadholder to be the military leader (House of Orange)

97 RELIGION, ECONOMICS & POLITICS Calvinism was dominant religionCalvinism was dominant religion –Dutch Reformed –Arminian Catholics and Jews enjoyed religious tolerationCatholics and Jews enjoyed religious toleration Cosmopolitan societyCosmopolitan society Amsterdam (Banking and Trade)Amsterdam (Banking and Trade) Relied on CommerceRelied on Commerce Dutch East India CompanyDutch East India Company Wars with England, France and the Spanish Succession caused them to declineWars with England, France and the Spanish Succession caused them to decline

98 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Medieval views were based on Aristotle and Ptolemy Medieval views were based on Aristotle and Ptolemy Geocentric Geocentric Church views, traditions and practices governed society Church views, traditions and practices governed society Causes of Revolution Causes of Revolution Free inquiry by philosophers Free inquiry by philosophers Scientific figures taught at universities Scientific figures taught at universities Renaissance stimulated science in rediscovering ancient mathematics Renaissance stimulated science in rediscovering ancient mathematics

99 COPERNICUS On the Revolutions of Heavenly SpheresOn the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres Heliocentric ViewHeliocentric View Challenged Ptolemy and the book of GenesisChallenged Ptolemy and the book of Genesis Theory condemned by Catholics, Luther and CalvinTheory condemned by Catholics, Luther and Calvin Tycho BraheTycho Brahe –Observatory collected data –Wanted to disprove Copernicus theory Johannes KeplerJohannes Kepler –Three Laws of Planetary Motion –Orbits are elliptical –Proved Copernican Theory

100 GALILEO Developed the Laws of MotionDeveloped the Laws of Motion Used Empiricism (Controlled ExperimentsUsed Empiricism (Controlled Experiments Validated Copernicus Theory with telescopeValidated Copernicus Theory with telescope Law of inertiaLaw of inertia Forced to recant by Pope Urban VIIForced to recant by Pope Urban VII

101 SCIENTIFIC METHOD Francis Bacon Inductive Method (Empiricism)Francis Bacon Inductive Method (Empiricism) –Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment and organize data –Find the truth at the end Rene Descartes Deductive MethodRene Descartes Deductive Method –Discourse on Method –Cogito Ergo Sum –Start with clear facts and subdivide each problem into as many parts as possible –Cartesian Dualism divided Mind and Matter Modern Scientific MethodModern Scientific Method –Inductive Method + Deductive Method

102 SIR ISAAC NEWTON Incorporated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo to explain the order and design of the universeIncorporated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo to explain the order and design of the universe –Principia –Natural Laws of Motion – Gravitation –Natural laws are unchangeable and predictable –Deism

103 EFFECTS AstronomyAstronomy MathematicsMathematics DeismDeism –God is a Clock Maker –He set the universe into motion and watches –Prayer not needed AnatomyAnatomy –William Harvey – Blood flow –Anton van Leeuwenhoek – Bacteria Scientific CommunityScientific Community –Governments encouraged Scientific discoveries –Prestige and new technology –Royal Society of England NavigationNavigation Led directly to the EnlightenmentLed directly to the Enlightenment

104 ENLIGHTENMENT

105 IMPACT ON SOCIETY Emergence of a secular world viewEmergence of a secular world view Enlightened DespotismEnlightened Despotism American and French RevolutionsAmerican and French Revolutions Education reformsEducation reforms Growth of Laissez Faire capitalismGrowth of Laissez Faire capitalism Classical LiberalismClassical Liberalism –Individual liberties –Equality before the law –Natural Rights –General Will –Freedom of Speech, Religion and Press

106 JOHN LOCKE Two Treatises of Civil GovernmentTwo Treatises of Civil Government State of Nature – Humans are good but lack protectionsState of Nature – Humans are good but lack protections Natural Rights – Life, Liberty and PropertyNatural Rights – Life, Liberty and Property Education is the key to human developmentEducation is the key to human development Tabula RasaTabula Rasa

107 PHILOSOPHES Believed in progress through discovering the natural laws governing nature and human existenceBelieved in progress through discovering the natural laws governing nature and human existence VoltaireVoltaire –Challenged traditional Catholic theology –Crush the infamous thing –Advocated Enlightened Despotism –Defend to the death your right to freedom of speech Baron de MontesquieuBaron de Montesquieu –Separation of powers into three branches –Checks and balances Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau –Social Contract –General Will –All men are born free but everywhere are in chains –Man was a noble savage –Emile believed in progressive education through learning by doing

108 Denis DiderotDenis Diderot –Editor of Encyclopedia –Compilation of political and social critiques of the various Enlightenment philosophes –Emphasized science and reason –Critical of religion, injustice and tyranny Marquis BeccariaMarquis Beccaria –On Crimes and Punishments –Humanize criminal laws –Equality before the law –Opposed torture

109 ADAM SMITH Francois Quesnay was leader of the French physiocrats who opposed mercantilism and favored laissez faireFrancois Quesnay was leader of the French physiocrats who opposed mercantilism and favored laissez faire Adam SmithAdam Smith –Wealth of Nations –Expanded Laissez Faire –Too much government control hurt production –Believed economy governed by natural laws of supply and demand –Government should provide schools, roads and military to protect trade

110 WOMEN SalonsSalons Emile – Women are to be obedient wife and motherEmile – Women are to be obedient wife and mother Voltaire – Women are capable of all that men doVoltaire – Women are capable of all that men do Women patronized philosophes (Diderot)Women patronized philosophes (Diderot) Mary Wollstonecraft promoted political and educational equality for women to end womens subjugation to men (slaves)Mary Wollstonecraft promoted political and educational equality for women to end womens subjugation to men (slaves)

111 IMMANUEL KANT While reason can neither prove nor disprove the existence of God, faith and intuition can lead one to understand the spiritual truths, existence of God, immortality and heaven and hell.While reason can neither prove nor disprove the existence of God, faith and intuition can lead one to understand the spiritual truths, existence of God, immortality and heaven and hell. What is the EnlightenmentWhat is the Enlightenment

112 ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM

113 CHARACTERISTICS Belief that Absolute Rulers should promote the good of the peopleBelief that Absolute Rulers should promote the good of the people Religious tolerationReligious toleration Legal codesLegal codes Increased access to educationIncreased access to education Reduction or elimination of torture and the death penaltyReduction or elimination of torture and the death penalty

114 FREDERICK THE GREAT First Servant of the StateFirst Servant of the State Reforms increased power of the stateReforms increased power of the state Religious freedom to Catholics and JewsReligious freedom to Catholics and Jews Created a clear unified national code of lawCreated a clear unified national code of law Freed serfs on royal landsFreed serfs on royal lands Abolished capital punishmentAbolished capital punishment Junkers – backbone of PrussiaJunkers – backbone of Prussia –Nobles –Serfdom maintained –Marriages not recognized between nobles and commoners

115 CATHERINE THE GREAT Boyars given complete control of serfsBoyars given complete control of serfs Imported western culture into RussiaImported western culture into Russia Printing Press introducedPrinting Press introduced Restricted tortureRestricted torture Limited religious toleration – Old BelieversLimited religious toleration – Old Believers Only nobles benefitedOnly nobles benefited

116 MARIA THERESA Pragmatic SanctionPragmatic Sanction Limited the power of the nobles and ChurchLimited the power of the nobles and Church –Partially freed the serfs –Reduced tortures –Suppressed the Jesuits –Taxed the church EconomicsEconomics –Abolished guilds –Abolished internal tariffs –Improved transportation

117 JOSEPH II Abolished serfdomAbolished serfdom Freedom of religion given to Protestants and JewsFreedom of religion given to Protestants and Jews Reformed judicial systemReformed judicial system Abolished torture and death penaltyAbolished torture and death penalty Established hospitalsEstablished hospitals Expanded state schoolsExpanded state schools Made parks available to publicMade parks available to public Made German the official languageMade German the official language

118 EUROPE IN THE 17 th & 18 th CENTURIES

119 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION 80% of Western Europe were farmers and higher in the East80% of Western Europe were farmers and higher in the East Open Field SystemOpen Field System England and NetherlandsEngland and Netherlands Increase in food production led to population explosionIncrease in food production led to population explosion New methods of cultivationNew methods of cultivation –Cornelius Vermuyden – Drainage –Charles Townsend – Crop rotation –Jethro Tull – Seed Drill –Robert Bakewell – Selective Breeding Columbian ExchangeColumbian Exchange –Potatoes and Corn –Sugar

120 Enclosure MovementEnclosure Movement –1 st Enclosure (16 th Century) for Sheep –2 nd Enclosure (18 th Century) ended Open Field System –Commericalization of Agriculture –Increased farm size –Corn Laws benefited landowners –Peasants forced off land Impact of Agricultural RevolutionImpact of Agricultural Revolution –Population Explosion –Enclosure movement –Cottage Industry –Lower food prices

121 ATLANTIC ECONOMY Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Great Britain and FranceSpain, Portugal, Netherlands, Great Britain and France MercantilismMercantilism BullionismBullionism Navigation ActsNavigation Acts Triangular TradeTriangular Trade The DutchThe Dutch The Slave TradeThe Slave Trade

122 The BubblesThe Bubbles Colonial WarsColonial Wars –Britain vs. France –Treaty of Utrecht Ended War of Spanish SuccessionEnded War of Spanish Succession Asiento given to BritainAsiento given to Britain –Seven Years War Started over who would control North AmericaStarted over who would control North America Treaty of Paris ended warTreaty of Paris ended war France lost CanadaFrance lost Canada Spain given LouisianaSpain given Louisiana Britain received IndiaBritain received India –The American Revolution FranceFrance Britain lost American coloniesBritain lost American colonies

123 POPULATION GROWTH PotatoPotato Better diet = better immune systemBetter diet = better immune system Improved sanitation systemImproved sanitation system Medicine advances (Edward Jenner)Medicine advances (Edward Jenner)

124 THE FAMILY

125 EDUCATION AND HEALTH

126 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

127 ANCIEN REGIME Louis XV restored the ParlementLouis XV restored the Parlement First EstateFirst Estate Second EstateSecond Estate Third EstateThird Estate –Taille –Corvee –Bourgeoisie –Lettre de cachet Arrest warrant without charges or trialArrest warrant without charges or trial

128 LONG-TERM CAUSES American ideals of libertyAmerican ideals of liberty Enlightenment ideas led to criticism of governmentEnlightenment ideas led to criticism of government –Montesquieu, Locke, Rousseau Laissez faireLaissez faire –Adam Smith French debtFrench debt American RevolutionAmerican Revolution

129 SHORT TERM CAUSES France was bankrupt because of the debtFrance was bankrupt because of the debt Inefficient tax systemInefficient tax system Inflation (65%)Inflation (65%) Jacques Necker tried to raise taxes on NobilityJacques Necker tried to raise taxes on Nobility Assembly of NotablesAssembly of Notables Famine and droughtFamine and drought Cahiers de doleancesCahiers de doleances –Complaints

130 NATIONAL ASSEMBLY Estates General (May 1789)Estates General (May 1789) Abbe Sieyes = What is the Third EstateAbbe Sieyes = What is the Third Estate Tennis Court OathTennis Court Oath The Great FearThe Great Fear August 4 th = Nobility abolishedAugust 4 th = Nobility abolished Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen –Men are free and equal –Natural Rights are to be protected –General Will –Freedom of Speech and Religion –Separation of Powers

131 March to VersaillesMarch to Versailles Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) –Secularized religion –Monasteries abolished –Church property used to pay debts –Clergy to be elected and forbidden to accept authority of the Pope Refactory Clergy = Refused to accept itRefactory Clergy = Refused to accept it –Divides France Metric SystemMetric System Le Chapelier lawLe Chapelier law –Outlawed strikes and unions

132 Assignats = $ backed by Church propertyAssignats = $ backed by Church property Flight to VarennesFlight to Varennes –Louis XVI and family tried to escape –Wanted to create a counter-revolutionary army

133 WOMEN Women ImprovementsWomen Improvements –Right to divorce –Inherit property –Child support Equality?Equality? –Could not vote or hold office –No belief in gender equality Olympe de GougesOlympe de Gouges –Declaration of the Rights of Woman –Wanted the same rights as men had

134 Mary WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft –Vindication of the Rights of Woman –Womens Suffrage Womens March to VersaillesWomens March to Versailles –Jean Paul Marat –Bread shortages –Forced King, Queen and son to return to Paris

135 REVOLUTION AND EUROPE Edmund BurkeEdmund Burke –Defended inherited privileges of monarchy and nobles –Predicted anarchy and dictatorship –Denounced the enlightenment political philosophy as abstract Thomas PaineThomas Paine –Defended Enlightenment and French Revolution –Saw triumph of liberty over despotism –European Monarchs were now worried Declaration of PillnitzDeclaration of Pillnitz –Influenced by the emigres –Prussia and Austria promised to restore the French monarchy –Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria

136 War of the First CoalitionWar of the First Coalition Brunswick ManifestoBrunswick Manifesto –Threat to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed Lazare Carnot = Levee en masseLazare Carnot = Levee en masse –Nationalism (Liberty, Equality and Fraternity) NapoleonNapoleon –Battle of the Pyramids

137 LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY Replaces National Assembly Replaces National Assembly Jacobins dominateJacobins dominate –Girondins Paris CommuneParis Commune –Revolutionary municipal government September MassacresSeptember Massacres

138 NATIONAL CONVENTION JacobinsJacobins –The Mountain (Radical) –The Girondins Sans-culottesSans-culottes Louis XVI executedLouis XVI executed The Mountain and sans-culottes oust the GirondinsThe Mountain and sans-culottes oust the Girondins Marat stabbedMarat stabbed

139 REIGN OF TERROR Committee of Public SafetyCommittee of Public Safety –Internal and external challenges Maximilien RobespierreMaximilien Robespierre Law of the MaximumLaw of the Maximum –Planned economy –Lowered prices Law of SuspectsLaw of Suspects –Alleged enemies of revolution were tried Marie AntoinetteMarie Antoinette GuillotineGuillotine –40K executed –300K imprisoned No one was safeNo one was safe

140 Republic of VirtueRepublic of Virtue –Cult of the Supreme Being Deistic ReligionDeistic Religion RobespierreRobespierre –Temple of Reason –New calendar Thermidorian ReactionThermidorian Reaction –Opposition to Robespierre –Ended the Reign of Terror

141 THE DIRECTORY 5 member executive to govern France5 member executive to govern France Bourgeoisie in controlBourgeoisie in control Reduced power of sans-culottesReduced power of sans-culottes Conspiracy of EqualsConspiracy of Equals –Gracchus Babeuf –Wanted a dictatorial democracy with equality and no property rights Napoleon returnsNapoleon returns –Coup dEtat

142 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

143 ENLIGHTENED NAPOLEON Consulate Period = First ConsulConsulate Period = First Consul Napoleonic CodeNapoleonic Code –Equality before the law –Freedom of religion –Property rights –Abolishment of serfdom CareersCareers Concordat of 1801Concordat of 1801 –French keeps the lands taken –France appoints clergy –Catholic worship allowed in public –Toleration given to Protestants and Jews

144 Bank of FranceBank of France Economic ReformsEconomic Reforms –Lower food prices –Increased employment –Tax system better –Le Chapelier continued Educational ReformsEducational Reforms –Preparation for government service & professional occupations Police state repressed liberty, subverted Republicanism and restored Absolutism under NapoleonPolice state repressed liberty, subverted Republicanism and restored Absolutism under Napoleon

145 NAPOLEONIC WARS Crowned himself emperorCrowned himself emperor The Grand EmpireThe Grand Empire Battle of TrafalgarBattle of Trafalgar Battle of AusterlitzBattle of Austerlitz Confederation of the RhineConfederation of the Rhine The Continental SystemThe Continental System The Peninsular WarThe Peninsular War The Russian CampaignThe Russian Campaign Frankfurt ProposalsFrankfurt Proposals Quadruple AllianceQuadruple Alliance Charter of 1814Charter of 1814 Hundred DaysHundred Days Battle of WaterlooBattle of Waterloo

146 CONGRESS OF VIENNA Met to redraw the territorial lines and restore the social and political order of the ancien regime (Conservatives)Met to redraw the territorial lines and restore the social and political order of the ancien regime (Conservatives) Prince MetternichPrince Metternich Czar Alexander ICzar Alexander I –Poland –Holy Alliance LegitimacyLegitimacy –Restore the monarchs CompensationCompensation –England = Naval bases –Austria = Italian provinces –Russia = Poland –Prussia = Rhineland –Sweden = Norway

147 Balance of PowerBalance of Power –No one power could cause a general war –Encircle France –Belgium and Netherlands united –Switzerland = neutrality –Austria in control of German Confederation (Bund) The Concert of Europe ( )The Concert of Europe ( ) –Keep the status quo Congress System ( )Congress System ( ) –Same as above

148 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

149 ROOTS Machines replaced humans and animal powerMachines replaced humans and animal power The Price Revolution stimulated productionThe Price Revolution stimulated production Capitalism = Surplus of $ by middle class investedCapitalism = Surplus of $ by middle class invested Scientific RevolutionScientific Revolution Cottage Industry = Putting Out SystemCottage Industry = Putting Out System

150 ENGLAND Land and GeographyLand and Geography –Good supply of coal and iron –Waterways provided power Agricultural RevolutionAgricultural Revolution –Enclosure movement created a supply of workers –Revolutions in agriculture created more food for more workers Avoided continental warsAvoided continental wars Bank of England funded industryBank of England funded industry Colonial EmpireColonial Empire –Raw materials –Market for British products

151 Stable government with a strong middle classStable government with a strong middle class TextilesTextiles –Cotton –Mechanized –Women workers Coal and Steam EnginesCoal and Steam Engines Iron created heavy industriesIron created heavy industries British dominated world marketsBritish dominated world markets British technology and engineers were best in the worldBritish technology and engineers were best in the world

152 INVENTIONS Flying Shuttle = John KayFlying Shuttle = John Kay Spinning Jenny = James HargreavesSpinning Jenny = James Hargreaves Water Frame = Richard ArkwrightWater Frame = Richard Arkwright Steam Engine = James WattSteam Engine = James Watt

153 TRANSPORATION REVOLUTION Steam PowerSteam Power Raw materials delivered to factoriesRaw materials delivered to factories Robert Fultons SteamboatRobert Fultons Steamboat George Stephenson RocketGeorge Stephenson Rocket 1 st important RR in the heart of industrial England1 st important RR in the heart of industrial England Reduced cost of shippingReduced cost of shipping Increased size of market = more demandIncreased size of market = more demand Increased the demand for urban workersIncreased the demand for urban workers RR used to travel to workRR used to travel to work

154 1815 INDUSTRIALIZED EUROPE Napoleonic Wars delayed industrializationNapoleonic Wars delayed industrialization Studied Britains mistakesStudied Britains mistakes Borrowed British technology, engineers and $Borrowed British technology, engineers and $ –Illegal until 1843 –Belgium, Holland, France and US just after 1815 –Germany, Austria and Italy by 1850 –Eastern Europe and Russia after 1885 Credit Mobilier helped build RRCredit Mobilier helped build RR ZollvereinZollverein –German tarriff on non-German imports –Free trade zone among member German states

155 BourgeoisieBourgeoisie –Factory owners –Golden Age Protestants and JewsProtestants and Jews –Bankers

156 URBANIZATION Birth of factory townsBirth of factory towns –Manchester –3 large cities to 31 in 35 years Cities switched from cultural centers to industrial centersCities switched from cultural centers to industrial centers Concentration of the population made conditions worseConcentration of the population made conditions worse Families working on the farm were an economic unit but industrialization/urbanization changed thatFamilies working on the farm were an economic unit but industrialization/urbanization changed that Work was taken away from the homeWork was taken away from the home Man was the breadwinnerMan was the breadwinner

157 Womens role was now tied to domestic dutiesWomens role was now tied to domestic duties Single women worked for low wages and faced exploitationSingle women worked for low wages and faced exploitation Irish workers came to Britain for better jobs and to escape the Irish Potato FamineIrish workers came to Britain for better jobs and to escape the Irish Potato Famine –Irish Catholic peasants rented land –Lived in poverty –1840s famine caused widespread suffering –Immigration to Britain and the US

158 WORKING CONDITIONS 14 hours a day, few holidays14 hours a day, few holidays Brutal and unsafe conditionsBrutal and unsafe conditions Low wages especially for women and childrenLow wages especially for women and children Real wages increased 50%Real wages increased 50% Skilled workers made 2X that of unskilledSkilled workers made 2X that of unskilled Work was impersonalWork was impersonal Child LaborChild Labor –Abandoned children –12 hour days and appalling conditions –Families worked as a unit

159 Saddler CommissionSaddler Commission –Investigated working conditions Factory Act of 1833Factory Act of 1833 –Limited workday for children 9-13 to 8 hours a day –Limited hours of ages to 12 hours a day –Elementary education for children under age of 9

160 INDUSTRIAL WORKER Proletariat = Factory WorkersProletariat = Factory Workers Poorhouses provided disgusting work designed to persuade workers to get out of the PoorhousesPoorhouses provided disgusting work designed to persuade workers to get out of the Poorhouses LudditesLuddites –Irate workers smashed machines –Feared machines were taking their jobs Friedrich Engels (The Condition of the Working Class)Friedrich Engels (The Condition of the Working Class) –Colleague of Karl Marx –Charged the English Middle Class with mass murder, robbery and other crimes at the expense of the proletariat

161 UNION MOVMENT Leaders began organizing workers to resist exploitationLeaders began organizing workers to resist exploitation Combination Acts (1799)Combination Acts (1799) –Prohibited Unions –Fear from the French Revolution = Robert OwenRobert Owen –Cared about his workers –New Harmony = Utopian Socialist community ChartistsChartists –All men have the right to vote Unions wanted the 10-hour day and cheaper grain prices (Anti-Corn laws)Unions wanted the 10-hour day and cheaper grain prices (Anti-Corn laws) Bread and Butter issues =Bread and Butter issues =

162 CONSERVATISM, NATIONALISM, LIBERALISM & SOCIALISM

163 CONCERT OF EUROPE Keep the status quo (Conservatives)Keep the status quo (Conservatives) Dominated by Prince MetternichDominated by Prince Metternich

164 CONSERVATISM A reaction to liberalism and the violence of the French RevolutionA reaction to liberalism and the violence of the French Revolution Edmund BurkeEdmund Burke Worried about Nationalism threatening the empires (Austrian)Worried about Nationalism threatening the empires (Austrian)

165 CARLSBAD DECREES Multi-ethnic composition of the Austrian Hapsburg Empire inspired liberalism and nationalism ideasMulti-ethnic composition of the Austrian Hapsburg Empire inspired liberalism and nationalism ideas Universities, professors and student groups were more liberal and nationalisticUniversities, professors and student groups were more liberal and nationalistic Prince Metternich cracked down on liberalism in universitiesPrince Metternich cracked down on liberalism in universities Unification literature was censoredUnification literature was censored

166 PETERLOO MASSACRE Corn Laws of 1815 halted importation of cheaper foreign grainCorn Laws of 1815 halted importation of cheaper foreign grain –Benefited wealthy English landowners –Hurt the majority of English population Pro-Liberal crowd listening to anti-Corn law speeches were attacked by British policePro-Liberal crowd listening to anti-Corn law speeches were attacked by British police –11 killed Press was censored and mass meetings prohibitedPress was censored and mass meetings prohibited

167 NATIONALISM Turn cultural unity into self-governmentTurn cultural unity into self-government Common language, history and traditions bring unity and common loyalitiesCommon language, history and traditions bring unity and common loyalities Supported by LiberalsSupported by Liberals Origins: French Revolution and NapoleonOrigins: French Revolution and Napoleon Johann G. HerderJohann G. Herder –Volksgeist –Every culture is unique –No one culture is superior –Every nation should contain all members of the same nationality

168 Johann G. FichteJohann G. Fichte –Father of German nationalism –German superiority over other peoples –Criticized Jews

169 REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS Spain (1820)Spain (1820) Naples (1820)Naples (1820) –Carbonari –Austrian troops crush rebellion Greek Revolution ( )Greek Revolution ( ) –Eastern Question = Balkans –England, France and Russia join Greeks Greeks were ChristiansGreeks were Christians Ottomans were MuslimOttomans were Muslim –Defeated Turks –Greek independence recognized

170 LIBERALISM Humans have certain natural rights and government should protect these rightsHumans have certain natural rights and government should protect these rights Rights are to be guaranteed by a written Constitution =Rights are to be guaranteed by a written Constitution = Republican form of governmentRepublican form of government –Representative Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations)Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations) –Bible of capitalism –Economic individualism Laissez faireLaissez faire –Opposed government intervention –Invisible hand = Supply and Demand

171 David Ricardo = Iron Law of WagesDavid Ricardo = Iron Law of Wages –Plentiful workers keep wages low –Hurts the working class –Fewer worker kids will reduce workers and improve wages UtilitarianismUtilitarianism –Jeremy Bentham –Greatest happiness for the greatest number John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill –Absolute freedom of opinion to be protected from censorship and tyranny of the majority (Voltaire) –Argued for Womens Rights

172 Thomas Malthus = POPULATIONThomas Malthus = POPULATION Inspired revolutions in 19 th centuryInspired revolutions in 19 th century Influenced reform movements in BritainInfluenced reform movements in Britain

173 LIBERAL REFORM IN ENGLAND Britain abandoned the Congress SystemBritain abandoned the Congress System Reformed the prisons = Auburn systemReformed the prisons = Auburn system Metropolitan Police ForceMetropolitan Police Force Test Act RepealedTest Act Repealed Catholic Emancipation Act (1829)Catholic Emancipation Act (1829) Reform Bill of 1832Reform Bill of 1832 –People demanded a more responsive government because of the cholera epidemic –Eliminated under populated rural districts (rotten boroughs) –Representation increased in manufacturing districts

174 Factory Act 1833Factory Act 1833 Poor Law 1834 (Poorhouses)Poor Law 1834 (Poorhouses) ChartistsChartists –Secret balloting –No property qualifications for parliament –Salaries for members of parliament –Annual elections –End to the rotten boroughs Corn Laws Repealed (1846)Corn Laws Repealed (1846) Victorian AgeVictorian Age

175 FRANCE Charter of 1814Charter of 1814 –Constitutional Monarchy established –Louis XVIII White TerrorWhite Terror –Former revolutionaries murdered by royalists mobs Spanish revolution crushedSpanish revolution crushed –French troops called in by Concert of Europe to restore the monarch

176 July Revolution (1830)July Revolution (1830) –Charles X July Ordinances were to impose an Absolute Monarchy repealing the Constitution of 1814 –Radicals in Paris revolt = Charles X abdicates –Louis Phillippe named the new king –The new Bourgeoisie King let the middle class control the government –Started a new wave of revolutions in Europe

177 ITALY Northern Italy was controlled by the Austrians inspiring liberal discontentNorthern Italy was controlled by the Austrians inspiring liberal discontent Guiseppe Mazzini secret society Young Italy called for unificationGuiseppe Mazzini secret society Young Italy called for unification The Carbonari wanted force o achieve national unificationThe Carbonari wanted force o achieve national unification Austrian troops crushed the disorganized rebellionAustrian troops crushed the disorganized rebellion Italian Risorgimento continued Mazzinis dreamItalian Risorgimento continued Mazzinis dream

178 GERMAN STATES Carlsbad decrees restricted freedomCarlsbad decrees restricted freedom University students and professors inspired by the French demanded constitutionsUniversity students and professors inspired by the French demanded constitutions Metternich crushed these revolts alsoMetternich crushed these revolts also

179 BELGIUM The United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Protestant) were united with Belgium (Catholic)The United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Protestant) were united with Belgium (Catholic) Belgium resisted being ruled by the DutchBelgium resisted being ruled by the Dutch They each had a different language, religion and economic lifeThey each had a different language, religion and economic life They were merged to control FranceThey were merged to control France Students and professors demanded an independent BelgiumStudents and professors demanded an independent Belgium Netherlands and Belgium separatedNetherlands and Belgium separated

180 RUSSIA Decembrist Uprising (1825)Decembrist Uprising (1825) –Junior military officers did not want Nicholas to be the next Czar –These junior military officers revolt was put down by Nicholas Nicholas INicholas I –Police state –Censorship –No representative assemblies –Education carefully monitored

181 SlavophilesSlavophiles –Russian culture was superior to Western WesternizersWesternizers –Expand Russian culture through Industrialization and a Constitutional government

182 SOCIALISM Wanted to reorganize society to establish cooperation and create a sense of communityWanted to reorganize society to establish cooperation and create a sense of community Count Henri Saint-SimonCount Henri Saint-Simon –Industrialization with Science will create a great world –Remove the parasites Lawyers, Aristocrats, the Court and the ClergyLawyers, Aristocrats, the Court and the Clergy –The doers can provide the proper organized society Scientists, Engineers and IndustrialistsScientists, Engineers and Industrialists –Public Work projects Louis BlancLouis Blanc

183 Pierre ProudhonPierre Proudhon –What is Property –Believed property was stolen from the worker –The worker is the source of all wealth

184 UTOPIAN Charles FourierCharles Fourier –Planned Socialist Economy –Total emancipation of women Robert OwenRobert Owen

185 KARL MARX Marxism developed by Marx and Friedrich EngelsMarxism developed by Marx and Friedrich Engels The Communist ManifestoThe Communist Manifesto –Bible of communism –Replace Utopian dreams with brutal blueprint for the proletariat Dialectical MaterialismDialectical Materialism –All human history determined by economic factors –Class struggle between the rich and poor Theory of the Surplus ValueTheory of the Surplus Value –Worker receives just a small portion of the true value of his work –It is stolen from him by the capitalist Socialism is inevitableSocialism is inevitable Violent Revolution needed to overthrow the elite bourgeoisieViolent Revolution needed to overthrow the elite bourgeoisie

186 Working Men of ALL COUNTRIES UNITEWorking Men of ALL COUNTRIES UNITE Creation of a classless societyCreation of a classless society Women are doubly oppressedWomen are doubly oppressed –Women are paid low wages and exploited –Women are considered 2 nd class citizens

187 1848 Revolutions influenced by Nationalism, Liberalism and RomanticismRevolutions influenced by Nationalism, Liberalism and Romanticism Only Britain and Russia avoided revolutionsOnly Britain and Russia avoided revolutions End to serfdom in Austria and GermanyEnd to serfdom in Austria and Germany Stimulated the unification impulse in Prussia and Sardinia-Piedmont (Italy)Stimulated the unification impulse in Prussia and Sardinia-Piedmont (Italy) FRANCEFRANCE February RevolutionFebruary Revolution –Working class and liberals wanted electoral reform –King abdicates –Louis Blanc wants National Workshops to provide work for the unemployed

188 –10 hour day established –Abolished death penalty –Blanc removed leads to July Revolution June Days RevolutionJune Days Revolution –Government closes National Workshops –Barricades (Les Miserables –Revolt crushed by General Cavaignac Election of Louis NapoleonElection of Louis Napoleon

189 ITALYITALY Nationalist and Liberals wanted end to foreign domination (Austrians)Nationalist and Liberals wanted end to foreign domination (Austrians) Giuseppe Mazzini established Republic protected by GaribaldiGiuseppe Mazzini established Republic protected by Garibaldi Revolt crushedRevolt crushed Rural people did not support the revolutionsRural people did not support the revolutions Revolutionaries not unitedRevolutionaries not united Fear of radicals among the moderatesFear of radicals among the moderates

190 AUSTRIAAUSTRIA Ethnic minorities sought nationalistic goalsEthnic minorities sought nationalistic goals Only 25% of the population was GermanOnly 25% of the population was German French revolution sparked revolutionFrench revolution sparked revolution Louis Kossuth was the Hungarian/Magyar leaders demanded independenceLouis Kossuth was the Hungarian/Magyar leaders demanded independence Metternich fled as the empire collapsedMetternich fled as the empire collapsed Austrians and Slavic joined together to defeat the MagyarsAustrians and Slavic joined together to defeat the Magyars At the Prague Conference Austroslavism was an attempt to unite the Slavic people as oneAt the Prague Conference Austroslavism was an attempt to unite the Slavic people as one Austrians army put it downAustrians army put it down

191 GERMAN STATESGERMAN STATES Inspired by the FrenchInspired by the French Frankfurt ParliamentFrankfurt Parliament –Liberal Romantics wanted a constitution for all in the German Bund –Unification of Germany was the goal –Prussia and Austria defeated Denmark getting Schleswig and Holstein –Selected Prussia King to rule Prussian King Frederick IVPrussian King Frederick IV –Divine Right –Not accept crown from the gutter

192 Unification movement collapsed because it was not supported by Austria or PrussiaUnification movement collapsed because it was not supported by Austria or Prussia Humiliation of OlmutzHumiliation of Olmutz –Austria demanded Prussias obedience to Bund that Austria controlled –Prussia drop unification plan, payback is coming

193 ROMANTICISM

194 BASICS Emotion over ReasonEmotion over Reason Glorification of nature emphasizing its beauty and dangerGlorification of nature emphasizing its beauty and danger Rejected the Enlightenment beliefsRejected the Enlightenment beliefs Emphasized feelings leading a fight against slavery, poverty and industrial evilsEmphasized feelings leading a fight against slavery, poverty and industrial evils Drew upon ideals of the Middle AgesDrew upon ideals of the Middle Ages –Honor, Faith and Glory

195 Rousseau = Noble savageRousseau = Noble savage Kant = GodKant = God Johann HerderJohann Herder –Rebelled against Enlightenment –Believed German language was key to unity –Volksgeist George Wm. HegelGeorge Wm. Hegel –Dialectic –Thesis is challenged by opposing view (Anti-Thesis) –Result is a blending of the ideas –Continues throughout history Johann FichteJohann Fichte –Germans were superior –Anti-Semitic

196 POETRY Johann GoetheJohann Goethe –Faust –Sells his soul to the devil to experience …. Sir Walter ScottSir Walter Scott –Historical poems and novels –Ivanhoe and Knights

197 LITERATURE GoetheGoethe –Romantic hero is misunderstood and rejected by society –Rejected by the girl he loves –suicide Victor HugoVictor Hugo –Fantastic characters and strange settings –Hunchback of Notre Dame –Les Miserables Grimms Fairy TalesGrimms Fairy Tales –Collection of German folk stories –German nationalism and romanticism are tied together

198 ART Eugene DelacroixEugene Delacroix –Liberty Leading the People JMW TurnerJMW Turner –The power of nature and mans attempt to survive its force

199 MUSIC BeethovenBeethoven SchubertSchubert Chopin (Polish)Chopin (Polish) VerdiVerdi Richard WagnerRichard Wagner –Music-Drama –German nationalist Peter TchaikovskyPeter Tchaikovsky –The Nutcracker and Swan Lake –1812 Overture

200 2 nd INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ROSEROSE –R –O –S –E Bessemer Process = SteelBessemer Process = Steel Science and Technology become linked togetherScience and Technology become linked together 1890s Germany most powerful industrial nation1890s Germany most powerful industrial nation Workers were attracted to the citiesWorkers were attracted to the cities

201 URBANIZATION 1891 = 50% of the Europes population1891 = 50% of the Europes population Decline in mortality ratesDecline in mortality rates Better nutrition, medical knowledge and housingBetter nutrition, medical knowledge and housing Number of children droppedNumber of children dropped Edwin Chadwick = SanitationEdwin Chadwick = Sanitation Georges von Haussmann redeveloped ParisGeorges von Haussmann redeveloped Paris –Wider boulevards –Middle class housing in the suburbs –Parks and open spaces Electric streetcarElectric streetcar –Suburbs –Subways

202 Jews in eastern Europe fled to the West to escape persecutionJews in eastern Europe fled to the West to escape persecution Increase in the standard of livingIncrease in the standard of living Experts with specialized knowledge needed to be professionals and managersExperts with specialized knowledge needed to be professionals and managers Petite Bourgeoisie = Lower middle classPetite Bourgeoisie = Lower middle class Women worked as secretaries, hello girls and nursesWomen worked as secretaries, hello girls and nurses

203 SOCIAL STRUCTURE 15-20% of Western Europe were Middle Class15-20% of Western Europe were Middle Class –2% in Eastern Europe The petite bourgeoisie were the lower middle class that included shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers, craftsmenThe petite bourgeoisie were the lower middle class that included shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers, craftsmen Middle Class were liberals who wanted protection of property in a constitutionMiddle Class were liberals who wanted protection of property in a constitution Middle Class emphasized respectability is based on financial successMiddle Class emphasized respectability is based on financial success The middle class saw the family as the foundation of social order and that education, religion and Nationalism are extremely importantThe middle class saw the family as the foundation of social order and that education, religion and Nationalism are extremely important

204 Working class totaled about 80% or more of the populationWorking class totaled about 80% or more of the population –Many were peasants or hired hands The labor aristocracy were the skilled workersThe labor aristocracy were the skilled workers The unskilled workers or domestic servants were at the bottom of societyThe unskilled workers or domestic servants were at the bottom of society Children comprised about 14% of the workersChildren comprised about 14% of the workers

205 FAMILY Romantic love #1 reason for marriage by 1850Romantic love #1 reason for marriage by 1850 Improved standard of living made it possible to marry at a younger ageImproved standard of living made it possible to marry at a younger age Middle class females were monitored closed (chastity) not so much for the boysMiddle class females were monitored closed (chastity) not so much for the boys The high rate of illegitimacy declined after 1850The high rate of illegitimacy declined after 1850 After 1850 the work of most wives was distinct and separate from their husbands workAfter 1850 the work of most wives was distinct and separate from their husbands work –Husbands were primary wage earners –Wives = Cult of Domesticity –Wives disliked 2 nd class status Parents became more emotionally involved with their childrens lives as mortality rates dropParents became more emotionally involved with their childrens lives as mortality rates drop

206 Mothers breast fed their childrenMothers breast fed their children Fewer children abandoned to foundling hospitalsFewer children abandoned to foundling hospitals Middle Class decreased the # of childrenMiddle Class decreased the # of children Parents of Middle class children wanted to improve the economic and social condition of their childrenParents of Middle class children wanted to improve the economic and social condition of their children Working class children went to work at adolescences = less emotional ties to familyWorking class children went to work at adolescences = less emotional ties to family

207 INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENTS

208 Belle Epoque Life at the end of the century (fin de siecle)Life at the end of the century (fin de siecle) People enjoyed higher wages and lower food pricesPeople enjoyed higher wages and lower food prices Increased leisure time with increased money to spendIncreased leisure time with increased money to spend SportsSports –Soccer –Rugby –Bicycle –Auto Races –Golf Women took part in bicycling and sports clubsWomen took part in bicycling and sports clubs Social Darwinists said sports competition confirmed the superiority of certain racesSocial Darwinists said sports competition confirmed the superiority of certain races

209 Cafés and taverns enjoyed increased patronageCafés and taverns enjoyed increased patronage Department stores grew significantlyDepartment stores grew significantly New inventions changed societyNew inventions changed society –Telephone –Automobile –Gramophone –Radio –Motion pictures –Telegraph By 1900 England and France (Ferry Laws) required school attendance to age 13 and education was freeBy 1900 England and France (Ferry Laws) required school attendance to age 13 and education was free

210 Literacy rates increasedLiteracy rates increased –Men higher than women –Urbanites more than rural –Northern/Western higher than Southern/Eastern Girls had less access to secondary education (Females had to pay)Girls had less access to secondary education (Females had to pay)

211 SCIENCE Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur –Developed germ theory –Pasteurization –Reduced food poisoning Joseph ListerJoseph Lister –Antiseptic principle in surgeries –Fewer people dying of infection from surgery August ComteAugust Comte –Positivism –All intellectual activity travels through predictable stages –Humans will one day discover the eternal laws of human relations –Wanted a religion of science –Wanted rule to be by the Social Scientists

212 Charles DarwinCharles Darwin –Theory of Evolution –All life evolved gradually from a common origin –Struggle for survival and adaption Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer –Social Darwinism –Survival of the Fittest –Imperialists and Industrialists used this theory to justify their crushing of the competition Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud –The human subconscious (ID) was not subject to reason –Sex was the driving force to ones psychological make-up –Repressed sexual desires lead to psychological problems –Dreams –Hypnosis

213 Marie CurieMarie Curie –Discovered first radioactive element with her husband Max PlanckMax Planck –Quantum theory that subatomic energy is emitted in uneven spurts –Laws of universe are now unpredictable Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein –Theory of Relativity of time and space challenged Newton –Time and space are relative to the observer –E = mc2: Matter and energy are interchangeableMatter and energy are interchangeable Even a tiny particle contains enormous levels of potential energyEven a tiny particle contains enormous levels of potential energy –Warned FDR that Germans were building an atomic bomb

214 Darwinism challenged the Bibles account of the creation of humansDarwinism challenged the Bibles account of the creation of humans Freudian psychology undermined the belief that humans were rational beings in control of their emotionsFreudian psychology undermined the belief that humans were rational beings in control of their emotions Shattered belief that universe could be explained easily via Newtonian phsyicsShattered belief that universe could be explained easily via Newtonian phsyics This uncertainty created by physics along with WW I will create an age of pessimismThis uncertainty created by physics along with WW I will create an age of pessimism

215 REALISM Belief that literature and art should depict life as it really wasBelief that literature and art should depict life as it really was A reaction to the failure of the 1848 RevolutionsA reaction to the failure of the 1848 Revolutions Gustave Flaubert depicted middle class as petty, smug and hypocriticalGustave Flaubert depicted middle class as petty, smug and hypocritical Leo Tolstoy had a fatalistic view of history but regards love, trust and everyday family ties as lifes enduring valuesLeo Tolstoy had a fatalistic view of history but regards love, trust and everyday family ties as lifes enduring values Artist were no longer dependent on patrons but created art they could sellArtist were no longer dependent on patrons but created art they could sell Ordinary people in urban settings became the focus of Realism ArtOrdinary people in urban settings became the focus of Realism Art Millet, Degas, ManetMillet, Degas, Manet

216 IMPRESSIONISM Impact of photography in which the subject is captured accuratelyImpact of photography in which the subject is captured accurately Painters sought to capture the momentary feeling or impression of the scene right before themPainters sought to capture the momentary feeling or impression of the scene right before them Monet, RenoirMonet, Renoir

217 POSTIMPRESSIONISM Desire to know and depict worlds other than the visible world can seeDesire to know and depict worlds other than the visible world can see Wanted to portray the unseen, inner worlds of emotion and imaginationWanted to portray the unseen, inner worlds of emotion and imagination A psychological view of realityA psychological view of reality Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh Paul CezannePaul Cezanne Pablo Picasso (Cubism)Pablo Picasso (Cubism)

218 RELIGION Nationalism decreased the influence of the Catholic church in some areasNationalism decreased the influence of the Catholic church in some areas Liberalism distanced society from the popeLiberalism distanced society from the pope Pope Pius IX condemned liberalism and Italian unification with his Syllabus of ErrorsPope Pius IX condemned liberalism and Italian unification with his Syllabus of Errors 1870 the pope was declared to be infallible when speaking on religious matters1870 the pope was declared to be infallible when speaking on religious matters Pope Leo XIII issued Rerum Novarum that condemned Socialism and Marxism while defending private property (capitalism) in hopes Catholics would participate in the politics of more liberal statesPope Leo XIII issued Rerum Novarum that condemned Socialism and Marxism while defending private property (capitalism) in hopes Catholics would participate in the politics of more liberal states

219 It also wanted laws protecting workers from exploitationIt also wanted laws protecting workers from exploitation Leo XIII announcement led to the creation of Catholic Political partiesLeo XIII announcement led to the creation of Catholic Political parties

220 THE AGE OF MASS POLITICS

221 CRIMEAN WAR Dispute between Catholics and Orthodox over privileges in the Holy LandsDispute between Catholics and Orthodox over privileges in the Holy Lands Turks gave preference to Napoleon III and the CatholicsTurks gave preference to Napoleon III and the Catholics Czar Nicholas I believe Eastern Orthodox access was in jeopardyCzar Nicholas I believe Eastern Orthodox access was in jeopardy Russia took Turk lands, Turks declare war on RussiaRussia took Turk lands, Turks declare war on Russia Britain and France join the Turks who were MuslimsBritain and France join the Turks who were Muslims Alexander II agreed to the Four Points ending the warAlexander II agreed to the Four Points ending the war –Gave up protectorship of Grek Orthodox Christians –Lost control of mouth of the Danube river –Black Sea neutral

222 Florence Nightingale = nursingFlorence Nightingale = nursing Russia was behind militarily and move toward industrialization and the modernization of its armyRussia was behind militarily and move toward industrialization and the modernization of its army

223 THIRD FRENCH REPUBLIC President Louis Napoleon (1851) seen as symbol of stability and greatnessPresident Louis Napoleon (1851) seen as symbol of stability and greatness Favored by the church, army, property-owners and business (conservatives)Favored by the church, army, property-owners and business (conservatives) Falloux Laws returned control of education to the ChurchFalloux Laws returned control of education to the Church Emperor Napoleon III (1852) centralized power with censorship of the press and state controlled elections until 1859Emperor Napoleon III (1852) centralized power with censorship of the press and state controlled elections until 1859 Became more liberal after 1859.Became more liberal after Infrastructure was improved (Georges von Haussmann)Infrastructure was improved (Georges von Haussmann) Credit Mobilier funded economic growthCredit Mobilier funded economic growth

224 Suez Canal completedSuez Canal completed Allowed trade unions to exist and allowed them to strikeAllowed trade unions to exist and allowed them to strike Ended censorship and granted amnesty to political prisonersEnded censorship and granted amnesty to political prisoners Rescued Pope Pius IXRescued Pope Pius IX Colonialism was a problemColonialism was a problem Foreign policy disasters caused these reforms to occur divert attention from his failuresForeign policy disasters caused these reforms to occur divert attention from his failures Franco-Prussian War led to his collapseFranco-Prussian War led to his collapse

225 Napoleon III abdicates during the Franco-Prussian WarNapoleon III abdicates during the Franco-Prussian War Adolphe Thiers created a new governmentAdolphe Thiers created a new government The Paris Commune was a radical communist group that took over ParisThe Paris Commune was a radical communist group that took over Paris –Refused to accept treaty ending Franco-Prussian War –Reused to accept the new government because they were acting as royalists (Versailles) National Assembly put down the Paris CommuneNational Assembly put down the Paris Commune Third French RepublicThird French Republic –Trade unions legalized –Multi-party system caused it to collapse several times Jules Ferry established a secular education system for public schoolsJules Ferry established a secular education system for public schools Boulanger CrisisBoulanger Crisis –Plot to overthrow the government

226 Panama Canal CrisisPanama Canal Crisis –Ferdinand de Lesseps failure cost France millons Dreyfus AffairDreyfus Affair –Anti-Semitism –Captain Dreyfus accused of being a traitor –Divided the country Emile ZolaEmile Zola –Jaccuse

227 GERMAN EMPIRE Humiliation of OlmutzHumiliation of Olmutz ZollvereinZollverein Kleindeutsch planKleindeutsch plan –Unified Germany without Austria Otto von BismarckOtto von Bismarck –The iron chancellor for Wilhelm I who ran the government Gap TheoryGap Theory –Legislature wanted reforms in the military and King disagreed –No mention of what to do in case of a stalemate in the constitution –Since King created constitution then he can ignore the liberals and make his own decisions

228 Great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions (1848) but by blood and iron (Bismarck)Great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions (1848) but by blood and iron (Bismarck) Prussian-Danish WarPrussian-Danish War –Germany and Austria defeated Denmark –Joint control of Schleswig and Holstein Austro-Prussian WarAustro-Prussian War –Bismarck wanted a localized war –Crushed Austria North German ConfederationNorth German Confederation –Reichstag –Bypassed Middle Class

229 Franco-Prussian WarFranco-Prussian War –Ems Dispatch provoked war –Southern German states join with Bismarck –France is crushed Treaty of FrankfurtTreaty of Frankfurt –Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany/Prussia The German Empire ( )The German Empire ( ) The Reichstag was the bicameral legislature that was dividedThe Reichstag was the bicameral legislature that was divided –Conservatives = Junkers –Center Party = Catholics –Social Democrats = Marxists Bismarck considered the Social Democrats and Catholic Center Party were the greatest threats to the empireBismarck considered the Social Democrats and Catholic Center Party were the greatest threats to the empire

230 Bismarck developed a universal German legal codeBismarck developed a universal German legal code KulturkampfKulturkampf –Believed that Catholics could not be loyal to both Germany and the Pope –Education taken over by the state –Veto power over clerical appointments –Catholics stayed strong Social Democratic PartySocial Democratic Party –Industrial workers –Wanted Socialism and Republicanism –Universal suffrage –Social programs

231 Bismarcks reformsBismarcks reforms –Health insurance (1 st ) –Social Security (1 st ) –Accident insurance –Child Labor regulations Kaiser Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm II –Fired Bismarck to get support from the workers –Did not sign the Re-Insurance treaty with Russia –Factory Inspection Act to improve work conditions

232 ITALIAN UNIFICATION Sardinia-Piedmont led the unification movement under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour and GaribaldiSardinia-Piedmont led the unification movement under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour and Garibaldi Realpolitik replaced romanticismRealpolitik replaced romanticism –Political outgrowth of Realism –Accomplishing political goals through practical means –Idealism is replaced with Machiavellian actions Prime Minister Count CavourPrime Minister Count Cavour –Editor of Il Risorgimento –Created a liberal and economically sound state –Reduced the influence of the Church –Pope Pius IX issued his Syllabus of Errors warning Catholics of liberalism, rationalism, socialism, and the separation of Church and State

233 PlombieresPlombieres –Napoleon III promise to support Sardinia in war against Austria UnificationUnification –Sardinia wins taking Northern Italy Giuseppe GaribaldiGiuseppe Garibaldi –The Red Shirts liberated southern Italy and Sicily The BootThe Boot –Garibaldi agreed to let his conquests be absorbed by King Victor Emmanuel II who had supported him VeniceVenice –Italy helps Prussia with Austrians RomeRome –France pulled its troops because of war with Prussia

234 AUSTRIAN EMPIRE The Hungarians and Czechs demanded self- governmentThe Hungarians and Czechs demanded self- government AusgleichAusgleich –Creation of a Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary) –Hungary had self-government but loyal to Franz Jospeh LanguageLanguage –German was a problem since only 25% of the empire was German Anti-SemitismAnti-Semitism

235 GREAT BRITAIN Political re-alignmentPolitical re-alignment –Tory Party becomes Conservative Party –Whig Party becomes Liberal Party Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative) –Aggressive Foreign Policy (Big England) –Expansion of British Empire –Reform Bill of 1867 Expanded Reform Bill of 1832Expanded Reform Bill of 1832 More equitable representationMore equitable representation Industrial cities gained seats from rural areas (rotten boroughs)Industrial cities gained seats from rural areas (rotten boroughs) Right to vote for men over 21Right to vote for men over 21 Doubled the number of votersDoubled the number of voters –Reduced government regulation of trade unions

236 William Gladstone (Liberal)William Gladstone (Liberal) –Irish Home Rule –Opposed imperialism –Abolished taxes supporting Anglican Church for Catholics –Australian Ballot (secret) –Civil Service Reform Fabian SocietyFabian Society –Revisionist Marxism –Wanted Economic Socialism wtih Political Democracy Parliament Act of 1911Parliament Act of 1911 –Liberal Party –Eliminated powers of the House of Lords –House of Commons center of power

237 Social Welfare State prior to WW ISocial Welfare State prior to WW I –Right of unions to strike –Workers Compensation –Unemployment insurance –Old-Age pensions –Compulsory school attendance –Tax increase on the wealthy to pay for social welfare state Representation of People Act (1918)Representation of People Act (1918) –Suffrage for Women over age 30 –World War I

238 THE EASTERN QUESTION BalkansBalkans Ottomans Sick Man of EuropeOttomans Sick Man of Europe Austrians, Russians and SerbiansAustrians, Russians and Serbians Powder Keg of EuropePowder Keg of Europe Pan-SlavismPan-Slavism

239 RUSSIA Alexander IIAlexander II –Believed serfdom held back Russias modernization –90% of Russians worked in agriculture –Serfs could be bought and sold –Serfs could be conscripted into the military Emancipation Act (1861)Emancipation Act (1861) –Abolished serfdom –Lived in mirs MirsMirs –Regulated communes –Collective ownerships delayed agricultural improvments ZemstvosZemstvos –Assemblies that administrated local areas

240 Count S. Y. WitteCount S. Y. Witte –Oversaw Russian industrialization –Steel and Oil –Industrialization stimulated by RR construction –Trans-Siberian RR –Industrialization led to industrial suburbs Alexander IIIAlexander III –Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification –Encouraged anti-Semitism (Pogroms) ZionismZionism –Theodore Herzl –Jewish homeland in the Holy Lands

241 WOMENS SUFFRAGE

242 BRITAIN Wanted better divorce lawsWanted better divorce laws Womens suffrage to improve exploitation and abuseWomens suffrage to improve exploitation and abuse Millicent Garrett Fawcett demanded female suffrageMillicent Garrett Fawcett demanded female suffrage Emmeline Pankhurst was militant suffragette destroying RR stations, works of art and store windowsEmmeline Pankhurst was militant suffragette destroying RR stations, works of art and store windows Hunger strikesHunger strikes Representation of the People Act (1918)Representation of the People Act (1918) Reform Act of 1928Reform Act of 1928 –Suffrage for WOMEN over 21, yea baby

243 SCANDINAVIA First grant Womens SuffrageFirst grant Womens Suffrage –Finland 1906 –Norway 1913

244 IMPERIALISM

245 CAUSES

246 CHINA, JAPAN & EGYPT

247 NEW IMPERIALISM

248 CRITICS

249 WORLD WAR I

250 CAUSES

251 WESTERN FRONT

252 EASTERN FRONT

253 MOBILIZATION FOR TOTAL WAR

254 FOURTEEN POINTS

255 REVOLUTIONS IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA

256 PEACE SETTLEMENTS

257 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

258 1905

259 WORLD WAR I

260 FEBRUARY REVOLUTION

261 OCTOBER REVOLUTION

262 TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK

263 RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR

264 WOMEN

265 RESULTS

266 INTERWAR YEARS

267 MODERN PHILOSOPHY Friedrich Nietzsche ( ):Friedrich Nietzsche ( ): –a. One of the most important critics of the rationalism of the Enlightenment –b. In Thus Spake Zarathustra ( ), he blasted religion and famously claimed "God is Dead" –· Claimed Christianity embodied a slave morality, which glorified weakness, envy, and mediocrity. –· Individualism had been quashed by society. –c. In Will to Power (1888) he wrote that only the creativity of a few supermenübermenschencould successfully reorder the world. –d. Though not widely read by his contemporaries, his writings seemed relevant in the atmosphere of post-World War I pessimism

268 Existentialism took root in Continental countries after World War II.Existentialism took root in Continental countries after World War II. –a. In the wake of the horrors of World War II and the advent of the atomic age, pessimism and hopelessness were expressed by existentialists. –b. Existentialists saw life as absurd, with no inherent meaning. –c. Viewed a world where the individual had to find his own meaning –d. Most existentialists were atheists –e. Jean-Paul Sartre ( ): Wrote that life had no meaning and that humans simply exist · He was strongly attracted to communism· He was strongly attracted to communism

269 f. Albert Camus ( )f. Albert Camus ( ) –· Individuals had to find meaning to life by taking action against those things with which they disagree. –· Ones actions are derived from personal choices that are independent from religion or political ideology. g. Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers were also prominent existentialists.g. Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers were also prominent existentialists.

270 FREUD Freudian psychology was first developed in the late 1880s by Sigmund Freud ( )Freudian psychology was first developed in the late 1880s by Sigmund Freud ( ) –a. Traditional psychology assumed a single, unified conscious mind processed sensory experiences in a rational and logical way. –b. Freudian psychology seemed to reflect the spirit of the early 20th century, with its emphasis on humans as greedy irrational creatures. –c. Became an international movement by 1910 and received popular attention after 1918, especially in Protestant countries of Northern Europe and the U.S.

271 d. Freud asserted that because the human unconscious (ID) is driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires, humans are therefore NOT rational! The ID battles the Ego & Superegod. Freud asserted that because the human unconscious (ID) is driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires, humans are therefore NOT rational! The ID battles the Ego & Superego –· Ego: Rationalizing conscious mediates what a person can do. –· Superego: Ingrained moral values specify what a person should do. –· Shattered the enlightenment view of rationality and progress.

272 e. Freud agreed with Nietzsche that mechanisms of rational thinking and traditional morals values can be too strong on the human psychee. Freud agreed with Nietzsche that mechanisms of rational thinking and traditional morals values can be too strong on the human psyche –· They can repress sexual desires too effectively, crippling individuals and entire peoples with guilt and neurotic fears –· Many opponents and some enthusiasts interpreted Freud as saying that the first requirement for mental health is an uninhibited sex life –· After WWI, the popular interpretation of Freud reflected and encouraged growing sexual experimentation, particularly among middleclass women.

273 MODERN ART

274 WEIMAR REPUBLIC

275 RISE OF HITLER

276 GREAT BRITAIN

277 GREAT DEPRESSION

278 SPANISH CIVIL WAR

279 TOTALITARIANISM

280 SOVIET UNION

281 LENIN

282 STALIN

283 LIFE IN THE SOVIET UNION

284 ITALY

285 MUSSOLINI

286 LIFE IN FASCIST ITALY

287 NAZI GERMANY

288 NAZI IDEOLOGY

289 NUREMBERG LAWS

290 THE SS AND THE GESTAPO

291 LIFE IN NAZI GERMANY

292 HOLOCAUST

293 WORLD WAR II

294 LEAGUE OF NATIONS

295 APPEASEMENT

296 GERMAN-SOVIET NON- AGGRESSION PACT

297 POLAND

298 CONQUEST OF WESTERN EUROPE

299 VICHY FRANCE

300 THE FINAL SOLUTION

301 INVASION OF SOVIET UNION

302 TURNING POINTS

303 DIPLOMACY

304 THE COLD WAR

305 ROOTS

306 CONTAINMENT

307 MARSHALL PLAN

308 BERLIN CRISIS

309 NATO AND NUCLEAR ARMS

310 KOREAN WAR

311 STALINS FINAL YEARS

312 IRON CURTAIN

313 KHRUSHCHEV

314 SUEZ CRISIS

315 SPUTNIK AND U-2 INCIDENT

316 BERLIN WALL

317 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

318 BREZHNEV ERA

319 VIETNAM WAR

320 WILLY BRANDT

321 DETENTE

322 HELSINKI CONFERENCE

323 AFGHANISTAN

324 GORBACHEV

325 INF TREATY

326 1989

327 FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION

328 WESTERN EUROPEAN RECOVERY

329 WEST GERMANY

330 FRANCE

331 GREAT BRITAIN

332 ITALY

333 ECONOMIC MIRACLE

334 CONSUMERISM

335 OIL CRISIS

336 EUROPEAN UNITY

337 WELFARE STATE

338 FAMILY

339 WOMENS RIGHTS MOVEMENT

340 COUNTER CULTURE

341 DECOLONIZATION

342 INDIA

343 EGYPT

344 ALGERIA

345 MIDDLE EAST

346 ISRAEL

347 GERMAN UNIFICATION

348 YUGOSLAVIA

349 GUEST WORKERS


Download ppt "THE RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ANALZYE THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANISM ON THE VISUAL ARTS IN."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google