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A Dividing Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "A Dividing Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Dividing Nation

2 Purpose What: we are learning is Power
By: learning events that kept the nation together and pulled it apart in the mid-1800’s, So: we know how power affects our lives.

3 Objectives Overview Objectives Social Studies Language Arts
In a Visual Discovery activity, students analyze and bring to life images depicting the growing conflict between the North and the South to understand why the nation could not prevent civil war. Objectives In the course of reading this chapter and participating in the classroom activity, students will Social Studies identify the regulations on slavery in the Northwest Ordinance. trace the effects of territorial expansion on the debate over slavery. analyze the impact of key events on the antislavery movement and on the Union. Language Arts participate in simulated historical debate.

4 Vocabulary Social Studies Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary
Key Content Terms Union Missouri Compromise Fugitive Wilmot Proviso Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott decision Lincoln-Douglas debates Academic Vocabulary Confront Ensure faction

5 Setting the Stage — The Union Challenged

6 Section 1 — Introduction
In 1860 Abraham Lincoln elected president. The nation was split apart over slavery. The question was, could the nation continue half-slave and half-free? Many hoped slavery would simply die. Instead, slavery began to expand into new territories, and could not be ignored. Between 1820 and 1860, Americans tried several compromises on the issue of slavery Slavery is a political and moral issue Lincoln thinks slavery is wrong

7 Section 2 - Confronting the Issue of Slavery
By 1819, 11 free states and 11 slave states Missouri threatened the balance of slave and free states. Should there be a ban on slavery west of the Mississippi? Should Missouri be a slave state ? James Tallmadge proposed an amendment. The amendment stated the Missouri could be added to the Union but only as a free state. Did Congress really have the power to decide if the new state would be a slave state or a new state? Instead, the people could decide if the state could be free or slave. People hoped slavery would die on its own. Instead slavery spread into new territories. Americans tried to fashion several compromises but each compromise brought new problems.

8 Section 3 — The Missouri Compromise
Congress struggled to find a way out of its deadlock over Missouri. Southerners began using such dreaded words as secession and civil war. A Compromise Is Reached Henry Clay presents The Missouri Compromise Missouri was admitted as a slave state Maine was admitted as a free state imaginary line across the Louisiana Purchase at latitude 36°30ʹ. North of this line, slavery was to be banned forever, except in Missouri. South of the line, slaveholding was permitted.

9 Section 3 — The Missouri Compromise
Reactions to the Compromise The Missouri Compromise kept the Union together Northern congressmen who voted yes were called traitors. Southern slaveholders resented the ban on slavery in territories that might later become states. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams recognized, the compromise had not settled the future of slavery in the United States as a whole.

10 Missouri Compromise 1820

11 Section 4 — The Missouri Compromise Unravels
The Second Great Awakening leaders promised that God would bless those who did the Lord’s work. For some Americans, the Lord’s work was the abolition of slavery. The “Gag Rule” Congress voted in 1836 to table—or set aside indefinitely—all antislavery petitions. In 1839, the gag rule prevented John Quincy Adams proposed a constitutional amendment saying that no one could be born into slavery after 1845. Southern Fears After Nat Turner’s slave rebellion in 1831 many states tried to keep abolitionist writings from reaching slaves. Fugitive Slaves Individual slaves continued to rebel by running away to freedom in the North. Slaveholders demanded that Congress pass a fugitive slave law to help them recapture their property.

12 Missouri Compromise 1820

13 Section 5 — The Compromise of 1850
Written by Henry Clay Supported by Senator Daniel Something for Everyone California a free state. New Mexico and Utah territories to decide whether to allow slavery. End slave trade in Washington, D.C. without threatening the rights of slaveholders. Finally, Clay’s plan called for passage of a strong fugitive slave law. Slaveholders had long wanted such a law, which would make it easier to find and reclaim runaway slaves. The Compromise of admitted California as a free state and allowed the southwestern territories to be set up without restriction on slavery. The Compromise Is Accepted Hoping that Clay’s compromise would end the crisis, Webster agreed to help it get passed in Congress. But despite Webster’s support, Congress debated the Compromise of 1850 [Compromise of 1850: the agreements made in order to admit California into the Union as a free state. These agreements included allowing the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide whether to allow slavery, outlawing the slave trade in Washington, D.C., and creating a stronger fugitive slave law.] for nine frustrating months. As tempers frayed, Southerners talked of simply leaving the Union peacefully. Webster dismissed such talk as foolish. “Peaceable secession!” he exclaimed. “Your eyes and mine are never destined to see that miracle I see it as plainly as I see the sun in heaven—I see that [secession] must produce such a war as I will not describe.” A war over slavery was something few Americans wanted to face. In September 1850, Congress finally adopted Clay’s plan. Most Americans were happy to see the crisis end. Some Southerners, however, remained wary of the compromise.

14 Slavery in the Territories
Pennsylvania representative David Wilmot added an amendment to the bill. The Wilmot Proviso stated that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in any part of the territory that might be acquired from Mexico as a result of the Mexican-American War. Southerners said Congress had no right to decide where slaveholders could take their property. The Wilmot Proviso passed the House, but it was rejected by the Senate. Statehood for California Southerners proposed a bill that would extend the Missouri Compromise line all the way to the Pacific. Slavery would be banned north of that line and allowed south of it. Northerners in Congress rejected this proposal. In 1849, California applied for admission to the Union as a free state. Northerners in Congress welcomed California with open arms. Southerners, however, rejected California’s request. California would upset the balance between slave and free states Southerners spoke openly of withdrawing from the Union. And once again, angry Northerners denounced slavery as a crime against humanity.

15 Slavery in the Mexican Cession
Extend the Missouri Compromise line. Northern want to prohibit slavery. Wilmot Proviso is a bill that would ban slavery in Mexican Cession . This bill fuels sectionalism Other want popular sovereignty to decide.

16 Election 0f 1848 Democrats and Whigs take not stand on slavery
Free-Soil Democrats and Whigs take not stand on slavery Wilmot Proviso supporters form Free-Soil Party Zachary Taylor barley wins. Democrats Whigs

17 The California Problem
California applies for statehood. They wanted to be a free state. Southern opposed any new free states because it will upset balance of power.

18 The U.S. in Mid-1850

19 Congressional Power

20 The Compromise of 1850

21 The Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay’s compromise for Mexican Cession and California. California as free state. Popular Sovereignty will decide in new territory. Congress to pay Texas’s debts for land dispute. End of Slave trade in Washington D.C. New Fugitive slave law

22 The Compromise of 1850 Responses
Antislavery northerners want California without restrictions. Southerners reject it because it upsets balance. Daniel Webster supports to preserve the Union. It is Passed!!!

23 The Fugitive Slave Act Federal crime to help runaways
Officials can arrest fugitives even in free states. Northerners oppose the law because no trial by jury. northerners is attempted to free Anthony Burns. Abolitionists write slave stories Uncle Tom’s Cabin changes peoples views.

24 Missouri Compromise 1820

25 Section 6 - The Compromise of 1850 Fails
Henry Clay’s and Daniel Webster’s Compromise of satisfied almost no one and the debate grew louder each year. The Fugitive Slave Act Northerners did not want to enforce the act. Southerners felt the act did not do enough to ensure the return of their escaped property.

26 Section 6 - The Compromise of 1850 Fails
Under the Fugitive Slave Act, a person arrested as a runaway slave had almost no legal rights. Many runaways fled all the way to Canada The Fugitive Slave Act also said that any person who helped a slave escape, or even refused to aid slave catchers, could be jailed. Opposition to the act was widespread in the North. Northerners’ refusal to support the act infuriated slaveholders. Only 299 were captured and returned to their owners during this time.

27 Section 6 - The Compromise of 1850 Fails
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Nothing brought the horrors of slavery home to Northerners more than Uncle Tom’s Cabin A novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Few other novels in American history have had the political impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Fueled the antislavery movement. In 1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published as a novel. No other work had ever aroused such powerful emotions about slavery. In the South, the novel and its author were scorned and cursed.

28 The Election of 1852 The Democrats Franklin Pierce from New Hampshire
Pleased southerners by promising to honor Compromise of 1850 and enforce Fugitive Slave Act. Whigs War hero, Winfield Scott Southerners don’t trust his commitment to Compromise of 1850.

29 Section 6 - The Compromise of 1850 Fails
The Ostend Manifesto and the Kansas- Nebraska Act Ostend Manifesto was a messeage: President Franklin Pierce urged the U.S. government to seize Cuba by force if Spain refuse to sell. Northerners charged that Pierce’s administration wanted to add another slave state to the Union.

30 Section 6 - The Compromise of 1850 Fails
Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced a bill to get a railroad built to California. Southerners in Congress agreed to support the bill only if Douglas made a few changes—and those changes had far-reaching consequences. Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854 created two new territories, Kansas and Nebraska. abolished the Missouri Compromise leaving settlers to vote on slavery . Bloodshed in Kansas: settlers poured into Kansas either to support or to oppose slavery. May 21, 1856, proslavery settlers and so-called “border ruffians” from Missouri attacked Lawrence, Kansas, A fiery abolitionist named John Brown and seven followers, invaded the proslavery town of Pottawatomie, Kansas. There, they dragged five men they suspected of supporting slavery from their homes and hacked them to death with swords.

31 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Railroad to Pacific Stephen Douglas, wants railroad to the Pacific to run through Illinois. Needs Louisiana Purchase to become a territory. Missouri Compromise would make that land free States. Douglas and the Southerners Southerners want railroad through the south Douglas promises to open new territory to slavery.

32 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Douglas proposes Kansas- Nebraska bill to Congress. Divides the land into two territories call Kansas and Nebraska Popular Soveignty will determine slavery. Response Anti-slavery northerners said it violates the Missouri Compromise for slavery. Pierce and Douglas convince Democrats to vote for it. Passes in 1854

33 “Bleeding Kansas” Kansas becomes a contest. Territory Elections
Held in March 1855 Won by pro-slavery forces, with thousands of Missouri votes. Two governments Territory legislature passed strict pro-slavery laws Antislavery Kansans formed their own government Pro-Slavery men attacked Lawrence. John Brown killed proslavery men at Pottawatomie Massacre.

34 “Bleeding Kansas” Violence in the Senate
Charles Sumner gave speech insulting Senator Andrew Pickens Butler of S.C. Butler’s nephew, Representative Preston Brooks, beat Sumner badly with a cane in the Senate chamber. Northerners are outraged. Southerners send Brooks more canes.

35 New Divisions Kansas-Nebraska Act impact
Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers and abolitionists form Republican Party. Northern Democrats who voted for the Act are not re-elected Whig Party split The Election of 1856 Know-Nothing Party split Democrats choose James Buchanan Republicans choose John C. Fremont Election Returns Buchanan won ,taking 14 of 15 slave states and 5 free states. Fremont won remaining free states Know-Nothing Party won M.D.

36 Section 7 — The Dred Scott Decision
In 1857, the slavery controversy shifted from Congress to the Supreme Court. Scott had traveled to Wisconsin, where slavery was banned by the Missouri Compromise. He argued that his stay in Wisconsin had made him a free man. Questions of the Case The justices had key questions to decide. First, as a slave, was Dred Scott a citizen who had the right to bring a case before a federal court? Second, did his time in Wisconsin make him a free man? Did Congress have the power to make any laws at all concerning slavery in the territories? And, if so, was the Missouri Compromise a constitutional use of that power? Nearly 80 years old, Taney had long been opposed to slavery. As a young Maryland lawyer, he had publicly declared that “slavery is a blot upon our national character and every lover of freedom confidently hopes that it will be wiped away.” Taney had gone on to free his own slaves. Many observers wondered whether he and his fellow justices would now free Dred Scott as well.

37 Section 7 — The Dred Scott Decision
Two Judicial Bombshells On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Taney delivered the Dred Scott By a vote of five to four, the Court had decided that Scott could not sue for his freedom in a federal court because he was not a citizen. No African American, whether slave or free, was an American citizen—or could ever become one. Taney declared that the Court had rejected Scott’s argument that his stay in Wisconsin had made him a free man. The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. Slaves are property. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution says that property cannot be taken from people without due process of banning slavery in a territory is the same as taking property from slaveholders who would like to bring their slaves into that territory that is unconstitutional. Congress has a constitutional responsibility to protect the property rights of slaveholders in a territory.

38 The Dred Scott Decision
The Case Dred Scott-slave of a Missouri surgeon who traveled to Illinois. Scott sues for freedom after owners death in Illinois Questions for Supreme Court Is Scott a citizen? Can he sue? Was he freed by going to free soil? Is the ban on slavery in Louisiana territory legal? The Dred Scott decision Roger B. Taney decides. (He was from a slave holding family.) African Americas are not citizens Scott is not free Missouri Compromise is illegal.

39 Section 8 — From Compromise to Crisis
Kansas-Nebraska Act, help create a new political organization, the Republican Party. The Republicans were united by their beliefs that “no man can own another man That slavery must be prohibited in the territories That all new States must be Free States That the rights of our colored citizen must be protected.” In 1858, Republicans in Illinois nominated Abraham Lincoln to run for the Senate Quoting from the Bible, he warned, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” Lincoln went on: “I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half-slave and half-free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.” The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln’s opponent in the Senate race was Senator Stephen Douglas. The Illinois senator saw no reason why the nation could not go on half-slave and half-free. Lincoln lost the election. But the debates were widely reported, and they helped make him a national figure. His argument with Douglas also brought the moral issue of slavery into sharp focus. Compromises over slavery were becoming impossible.

40 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Abraham Lincoln challenged Stephan Douglas for U.S. Senate seat They hold seven debates across Illinois. Lincoln argued to stop the spread of slavery in territories Douglas announces Freeport Doctrine- American citizen have power to ban slavery not Congress. Douglas won but Lincoln gains popularity in the Republican Party

41 Section 8 — From Compromise to Crisis
John Brown’s Raid While Lincoln fought to stop the spread of slavery through politics, abolitionist John Brown adopted a more extreme approach. Brown planned to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia and to use the weapons to arm slaves for a rebellion that would end slavery. Brown launched his raid in 1859 All of Brown’s men were killed or captured during the raid. Brown himself was convicted of treason and sentenced to die. “I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with Blood.” Southerners feared future attacks Northerners viewed Brown as a hero also left white Southerners uneasy.

42 The Raid on Harpers Ferry
John Brown Planed to attack federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Want to arm slave for a slave revolt. John Brown’s Raid 20 men including John Brown and his three sons 10/16/1859, captured arsenal, but slaves did not join in. White towns people fought back until the army arrived and captured Brown and his raiders

43 Judging John Brown Brown was convicted of Treason, murder and conspiracy of rebellion. He was hanged in Dec. 1859 Hero in the north Some northern did not approve of the violence. White southerners felt threatened and fear more attacks.

44 Secession Objectives:
Explain how Americans reacted to John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry. Explain what factors led to Lincoln’s victory in the presidential election of 1860. Explain why some southern states decided to leave the Union.

45 The Election of 1860 The Election of 1860
Democratic Party split- Stephen Douglas for the northern Democrats and John C. Breckinridge for the southern Democrats. A new party Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell. Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln. Outcome Lincoln only won 40 % Lincoln didn’t win a southern state.

46 Breaking with the Union
Constitution does not address secession or forming withdrawing from the Union. S.C. seceded in Dec fearing Lincoln would end slavery. John J. Crittenden try to make the south happy with a series of proposed amendments. Republican reject the proposals because they extend slavery.

47 Section 9 — The Election of 1860 and Secession
The 1860 presidential race showed just how divided the nation had become. Republicans united behind Lincoln. The Democrats split Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas. Southern Democrats supported John C. Breckinridge. Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell. Abraham Lincoln Is Elected President With his opposition divided three ways, Lincoln won the presidential election with just 40 percent of the vote.

48 Section 9 — The Election of 1860 and Secession
The South Secedes from the Union The Senate committee held its first meeting on December 20, Just as the senators began their work, events in two distant cities dashed their hopes for a settlement. President-Elect Abraham Lincoln said he would not interfere with slavery in the South. And he would support enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act. But Lincoln drew the line at letting slavery extend into the territories. On this question, he declared, “Let there be no compromise.” Meanwhile, in Charleston, South Carolina, delegates attending a state convention voted that same day—December 20, 1860—to leave the Union. Six more states soon followed South Carolina’s lead. In February 1861, those states joined together as the Confederate States of America. The Civil War Begins On March 4, 1861, Lincoln became president of the not-so- united United States. In his inaugural address, Lincoln stated his belief that secession was both wrong and unconstitutional. He then appealed to the rebellious states to return in peace. “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine,” he said, “is the momentous issue of civil war.” A month later, Confederates in Charleston, South Carolina, forced the issue. On April 12, 1861, they opened fire on Fort Sumter, a federal fort in Charleston Harbor. After 33 hours of heavy shelling, the defenders of the fort hauled down the Stars and Stripes and replaced it with the white flag of surrender. The news that the Confederates had fired on the American flag unleashed a wave of patriotic fury in the North. All the doubts that people had about using force to save the Union vanished. A New York newspaper reported excitedly, “There is no more thought of bribing or coaxing the traitors who have dared to aim their cannon balls at the flag of the Union Fort Sumter is temporarily lost, but the country is saved.” The time for compromise was over. The issues that had divided the nation for so many years would now be decided by a civil war.

49 Section 9 — The Election of 1860 and Secession
The Civil War Begins On March 4, 1861, Lincoln became president of the not-so-united United States. In his inaugural address, Lincoln stated his belief that secession was both wrong and unconstitutional. He then appealed to the rebellious states to return in peace. “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine,” he said, “is the momentous issue of civil war.” On April 12, 1861, they opened fire on Fort Sumter, a federal fort in Charleston Harbor. After 33 hours of heavy shelling, the defenders of the fort hauled down the Stars and Stripes and replaced it with the white flag of surrender. The time for compromise was over. The issues that had divided the nation for so many years would now be decided by a civil war.

50 The Confederate States of America
By Feb. 1, states seceded. SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX, (The deep south) They formed a new nation called Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis is elected the president of the Confederate States of America.

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