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A Dividing Nation 21.1 *Between 1820 and 1860 Americans had tried to make several compromises on the issue of slavery. *But slavery wasn’t a simple political.

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Presentation on theme: "A Dividing Nation 21.1 *Between 1820 and 1860 Americans had tried to make several compromises on the issue of slavery. *But slavery wasn’t a simple political."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Dividing Nation 21.1 *Between 1820 and 1860 Americans had tried to make several compromises on the issue of slavery. *But slavery wasn’t a simple political issue. It was a deeply moral issue. *In this chapter you will learn how Americans tried to keep the United States together despite their deep divisions and answer the most important question of the time: could a nation born in freedom endure half-slave and half-free? 21.1 *Between 1820 and 1860 Americans had tried to make several compromises on the issue of slavery. *But slavery wasn’t a simple political issue. It was a deeply moral issue. *In this chapter you will learn how Americans tried to keep the United States together despite their deep divisions and answer the most important question of the time: could a nation born in freedom endure half-slave and half-free?

2 21.2 Confronting the Issue of Slavery *1787 Northwest Ordinance establishes a process for forming new states and banned slavery north of the Ohio River. *By 1818, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois are admitted to the Union as free states. *Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana and Mississippi are admitted as slave states. *1819 Alabama and Missouri apply for statehood. Alabama is admitted as a slave state, thus restoring a balance between slave and free state. Questions about Missouri *Most of Missouri lay north of the point where the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi, so people debate whether it should be admitted as a free or slave state. The Tallmadge Amendment *Proposes that Missouri enter the Union as a free state. *1787 Northwest Ordinance establishes a process for forming new states and banned slavery north of the Ohio River. *By 1818, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois are admitted to the Union as free states. *Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana and Mississippi are admitted as slave states. *1819 Alabama and Missouri apply for statehood. Alabama is admitted as a slave state, thus restoring a balance between slave and free state. Questions about Missouri *Most of Missouri lay north of the point where the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi, so people debate whether it should be admitted as a free or slave state. The Tallmadge Amendment *Proposes that Missouri enter the Union as a free state.

3 21.2 continued… Deadlocked Congress *Both North and South want Missouri to enter the Union in their favor, either free or slave state. *The North has more representatives in the House. *In the Senate both North and South have equal voting power. *House votes to approve the Tallmadge Amendment. *Southerners are able to defeat it in the Senate. *By the end of 1819 Congress is deadlocked over the issue of slavery in Missouri. James Tallmadge Deadlocked Congress *Both North and South want Missouri to enter the Union in their favor, either free or slave state. *The North has more representatives in the House. *In the Senate both North and South have equal voting power. *House votes to approve the Tallmadge Amendment. *Southerners are able to defeat it in the Senate. *By the end of 1819 Congress is deadlocked over the issue of slavery in Missouri. James Tallmadge

4 Test Prep Missouri’s application for statehood in 1819 raised the issue of whether slavery A) was constitutional anywhere. B) should be allowed in the Louisiana Territory. C) could be abolished peacefully. D) should be banned in the nation’s capital. Answer: B) should be allowed in the Louisiana Territory. Missouri’s application for statehood in 1819 raised the issue of whether slavery A) was constitutional anywhere. B) should be allowed in the Louisiana Territory. C) could be abolished peacefully. D) should be banned in the nation’s capital. Answer: B) should be allowed in the Louisiana Territory.

5 21.3 The Missouri Compromise *When Congress returns in 1820 Maine is also now asking to be admitted into the Union as a free state. *Congress finally agrees to a compromise that will admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Congress also draws an imaginary line across the Louisiana Territory at 36*30’ latitude that bans slavery north of that line forever. *When Congress returns in 1820 Maine is also now asking to be admitted into the Union as a free state. *Congress finally agrees to a compromise that will admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Congress also draws an imaginary line across the Louisiana Territory at 36*30’ latitude that bans slavery north of that line forever. Missouri Compromise

6 21.4 The Missouri Compromise Unravels *For a while the Missouri Compromise puts the issue of slavery to rest. *However, because of the Second Great Awakening of the 1820’s and 1830’s spiritual leaders call for the abolition of slavery all together. *For a while the Missouri Compromise puts the issue of slavery to rest. *However, because of the Second Great Awakening of the 1820’s and 1830’s spiritual leaders call for the abolition of slavery all together.

7 21.4 Continued… Gag Rule *1836 Congress votes to table all anti-slavery petitions. Southern Fears *Abolitionists continue to attack slavery in books, newspapers and at public meetings. *Southerners resent abolitionists’ attacks as an assault on their way of life. *Southern states adopt strict new laws to control the movement of slaves. Fugitive Slaves *Slaves are escaping to the North and are being helped by Northerners. This further outrages Southerners. Gag Rule *1836 Congress votes to table all anti-slavery petitions. Southern Fears *Abolitionists continue to attack slavery in books, newspapers and at public meetings. *Southerners resent abolitionists’ attacks as an assault on their way of life. *Southern states adopt strict new laws to control the movement of slaves. Fugitive Slaves *Slaves are escaping to the North and are being helped by Northerners. This further outrages Southerners.

8 21.4 Continued… Wilmot Proviso *1846 Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot insists that slavery will not exist in any part of the territory that might be acquired from Mexico. *1849 California applies for admission to the Union as a free state. *Northerners welcome California with open arms. *Southerners reject California’s request. Wilmot Proviso *1846 Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot insists that slavery will not exist in any part of the territory that might be acquired from Mexico. *1849 California applies for admission to the Union as a free state. *Northerners welcome California with open arms. *Southerners reject California’s request. Wilmot Proviso

9 Test Prep The Missouri Compromise A) upset the balance between slave and free states in the Senate. B) was met by loud, violent protests. C) quieted the slavery debate for a while. D) led the South to secede from the Union. Answer: C) quieted the slavery debate for a while. The Missouri Compromise A) upset the balance between slave and free states in the Senate. B) was met by loud, violent protests. C) quieted the slavery debate for a while. D) led the South to secede from the Union. Answer: C) quieted the slavery debate for a while.

10 Test Prep How did the Second Great Awakening affect the slavery issue? A) It inspired many Americans to dedicate their lives to ending slavery. B) It forced southerners to admit that owning slaves was a sin. C) It upset the balance between slave and free states in Congress. D) It opened the question of whether slavery should spread westward. Answer: A) It inspired many Americans to dedicate their lives to ending slavery. How did the Second Great Awakening affect the slavery issue? A) It inspired many Americans to dedicate their lives to ending slavery. B) It forced southerners to admit that owning slaves was a sin. C) It upset the balance between slave and free states in Congress. D) It opened the question of whether slavery should spread westward. Answer: A) It inspired many Americans to dedicate their lives to ending slavery.

11 21.5 The Compromise of 1850 Something for Everyone *Henry Clay proposes that California be admitted as a free state, New Mexico and Utah territories will be open to slavery. *1850 Congress accepts Clay’s proposal. Something for Everyone *Henry Clay proposes that California be admitted as a free state, New Mexico and Utah territories will be open to slavery. *1850 Congress accepts Clay’s proposal.

12 21.6 The Compromise Satisfies No One Fugitive Slave Law *Both sides are unhappy with it. *Northerners refuse to support the law. *This infuriates slaveholders and makes the law impossible to enforce. Fugitive Slave Law *Both sides are unhappy with it. *Northerners refuse to support the law. *This infuriates slaveholders and makes the law impossible to enforce. Fugitive Slave Law

13 21.6 Continued… Uncle Tom’s Cabin *1851 Harriet Beecher Stowe writes a novel about the horrors of slavery. *1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published. In the North it is welcomed and praised. In the South, it is scorned and cursed. Uncle Tom’s Cabin *1851 Harriet Beecher Stowe writes a novel about the horrors of slavery. *1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published. In the North it is welcomed and praised. In the South, it is scorned and cursed. Harriet Beecher Stowe

14 Test Prep Which part of the Compromise of 1850 created the most controversy during the 1850’s? A) the admission of California as a free states. B) the organization of New Mexico and Utah as territories open to slavery. C) the ending of the slave trade in Washington D.C. D) the passage of a strong fugitive slave law to return runaway slaves to their owners. Answer: D) the passage of a strong fugitive slave law to return runaway slaves to their owners. Which part of the Compromise of 1850 created the most controversy during the 1850’s? A) the admission of California as a free states. B) the organization of New Mexico and Utah as territories open to slavery. C) the ending of the slave trade in Washington D.C. D) the passage of a strong fugitive slave law to return runaway slaves to their owners. Answer: D) the passage of a strong fugitive slave law to return runaway slaves to their owners.

15 21.6 Continued… Ostend Manifesto 1854 *Message that urges the US government to seize Cuba by force from Spain if they refuse to sell the island. *Northerners see this as the South’s way of getting another slave state into the Union. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 *Creates two new territories, Kansas and Nebraska. *Leaves it up to those who settle the areas whether to become free or slave territories. Ostend Manifesto 1854 *Message that urges the US government to seize Cuba by force from Spain if they refuse to sell the island. *Northerners see this as the South’s way of getting another slave state into the Union. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 *Creates two new territories, Kansas and Nebraska. *Leaves it up to those who settle the areas whether to become free or slave territories. Kansas-Nebraska Act

16 Test Prep The Kansas-Nebraska Act A) led to bloodshed over slavery in Kansas. B) settled the slavery issue in Nebraska. C) banned slavery in Kansas and Nebraska. D) was a successful compromise on slavery. Answer: A) Led to bloodshed over slavery in Kansas. The Kansas-Nebraska Act A) led to bloodshed over slavery in Kansas. B) settled the slavery issue in Nebraska. C) banned slavery in Kansas and Nebraska. D) was a successful compromise on slavery. Answer: A) Led to bloodshed over slavery in Kansas.

17 21.7 The Dred Scott Decision *Missouri slave named Dred Scott travels with his owner to Wisconsin, where slavery is banned. *Upon returning to Missouri Scott goes to court to win his freedom. *1857 by a vote of five to four, Supreme Court decides 1) that Scott can not sue for his freedom because he is not a citizen and 2) that Scott’s stay in Wisconsin does not make him a free man because the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional. *This allows slavery in all territories. *Missouri slave named Dred Scott travels with his owner to Wisconsin, where slavery is banned. *Upon returning to Missouri Scott goes to court to win his freedom. *1857 by a vote of five to four, Supreme Court decides 1) that Scott can not sue for his freedom because he is not a citizen and 2) that Scott’s stay in Wisconsin does not make him a free man because the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional. *This allows slavery in all territories. Dred Scott Decision

18 Test Prep In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court ruled that slavery A) was a blot on our national character. B) could be allowed in the territories. C) violated the Fifth Amendment. D) should be ended by Congress. Answer: B) could be allowed in the territories. In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court ruled that slavery A) was a blot on our national character. B) could be allowed in the territories. C) violated the Fifth Amendment. D) should be ended by Congress. Answer: B) could be allowed in the territories.

19 21.8 From Compromise to Crisis *Anti-slavery activists form the Republican Party. *1858-In Illinois, Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln to run for Senate. His opponent will be Senator Stephen Douglas. Lincoln-Douglas Debates *Douglas argues the Dred Scott Decision ended the slavery issue. *Lincoln argues that slavery is a moral, not a legal issue. *Lincoln loses the election but he becomes a national figure for anti- slavery. *Anti-slavery activists form the Republican Party. *1858-In Illinois, Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln to run for Senate. His opponent will be Senator Stephen Douglas. Lincoln-Douglas Debates *Douglas argues the Dred Scott Decision ended the slavery issue. *Lincoln argues that slavery is a moral, not a legal issue. *Lincoln loses the election but he becomes a national figure for anti- slavery. Lincoln- Douglass Debates Lincoln- Douglass Debates Documentary

20 21.8 Continued… John Brown’s Raid Brown leads a raid to seize the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. He wants to arm slaves for a rebellion that would destroy slavery forever. *Raid is a failure. His men are killed in battle and Brown is captured and hanged for treason. John Brown’s Raid Brown leads a raid to seize the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. He wants to arm slaves for a rebellion that would destroy slavery forever. *Raid is a failure. His men are killed in battle and Brown is captured and hanged for treason. John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry, and John Brown’s Raid

21 Test Prep John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry A) triggered a widespread slave rebellion. B) was widely approved across the South. C) was condemned by Abraham Lincoln. D) made Brown a hero among abolitionists. Answer: D) Made Brown a hero among abolitionists. John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry A) triggered a widespread slave rebellion. B) was widely approved across the South. C) was condemned by Abraham Lincoln. D) made Brown a hero among abolitionists. Answer: D) Made Brown a hero among abolitionists.

22 21.8 Continued… Election of 1860 *Republicans unite behind Lincoln. *Democrats split between Stephen Douglas and John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. *Group called the Constitutional Union Party nominates John Bell of Tennessee. *Abraham Lincoln wins with overwhelming support in the North. *Southerners see this as the last straw because they fear Lincoln will abolish slavery altogether. *L-R clockwise: Douglas, Breckinridge, Bell, Lincoln. Election of 1860 *Republicans unite behind Lincoln. *Democrats split between Stephen Douglas and John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. *Group called the Constitutional Union Party nominates John Bell of Tennessee. *Abraham Lincoln wins with overwhelming support in the North. *Southerners see this as the last straw because they fear Lincoln will abolish slavery altogether. *L-R clockwise: Douglas, Breckinridge, Bell, Lincoln.

23 Test Prep The election of 1860 showed how A) deeply divided the nation was over slavery. B) popular Lincoln was in the North and the South. C) little support abolitionists had in the North. D) eager Americans were to end the debate over slavery. Answer: A) deeply divided the nation was over slavery. The election of 1860 showed how A) deeply divided the nation was over slavery. B) popular Lincoln was in the North and the South. C) little support abolitionists had in the North. D) eager Americans were to end the debate over slavery. Answer: A) deeply divided the nation was over slavery.

24 21.9 Secession *Dec. 20th, 1860 Lincoln states that he will not interfere with slavery in the South. But he also states that he will enforce the Fugitive Slave Law and that he will not allow slavery in the territories. *That same day South Carolina votes to leave the Union. Six more states soon follow South Carolina’s lead. Civil War *March 4, 1861 Lincoln becomes president. *April 12, 1861 rebels fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. *The fort falls after 33 hours. *Stars and Stripes replaced with a flag of surrender. *The Civil War Begins. *Dec. 20th, 1860 Lincoln states that he will not interfere with slavery in the South. But he also states that he will enforce the Fugitive Slave Law and that he will not allow slavery in the territories. *That same day South Carolina votes to leave the Union. Six more states soon follow South Carolina’s lead. Civil War *March 4, 1861 Lincoln becomes president. *April 12, 1861 rebels fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. *The fort falls after 33 hours. *Stars and Stripes replaced with a flag of surrender. *The Civil War Begins.

25 Test Prep What event turned the secession crisis into a civil war? A) the election of Lincoln as president. B) John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry. C) South Carolina’s shelling of Fort Sumter. D) the attack of Preston Brooks on Charles Sumner. Answer: C) South Carolina’s shelling of Fort Sumter. What event turned the secession crisis into a civil war? A) the election of Lincoln as president. B) John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry. C) South Carolina’s shelling of Fort Sumter. D) the attack of Preston Brooks on Charles Sumner. Answer: C) South Carolina’s shelling of Fort Sumter.


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