Presentation on theme: "A Dividing Nation 21.1 *Between 1820 and 1860 Americans had tried to make several compromises on the issue of slavery. *But slavery wasn’t a simple political."— Presentation transcript:
1 A Dividing Nation21.1*Between 1820 and 1860 Americans had tried to make several compromises on the issue of slavery.*But slavery wasn’t a simple political issue. It was a deeply moral issue.*In this chapter you will learn how Americans tried to keep the United States together despite their deep divisions and answer the most important question of the time: could a nation born in freedom endure half-slave and half-free?
2 21.2 Confronting the Issue of Slavery *1787 Northwest Ordinance establishes a process for forming newstates and banned slavery north of the Ohio River.*By 1818, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois are admitted to the Union as freestates.*Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana and Mississippi are admitted asslave states.*1819 Alabama and Missouri apply for statehood. Alabama is admitted as aslave state, thus restoring a balance between slave and free state.Questions about Missouri*Most of Missouri lay north of the point where the Ohio River flows into theMississippi, so people debate whether it should be admitted as a free or slavestate.The Tallmadge Amendment*Proposes that Missouri enter the Unionas a free state.
3 21.2 continued… Deadlocked Congress *Both North and South want Missouri to enter the Union intheir favor, either free or slave state.*The North has more representatives in the House.*In the Senate both North and South have equal voting power.*House votes to approve the Tallmadge Amendment.*Southerners are able to defeat it in the Senate.*By the end of 1819 Congress is deadlocked over the issue ofslavery in Missouri.James Tallmadge
4 Test PrepMissouri’s application for statehood in 1819 raised the issue of whether slaveryA) was constitutional anywhere.B) should be allowed in the Louisiana Territory.C) could be abolished peacefully.D) should be banned in the nation’s capital.Answer: B) should be allowed in the Louisiana Territory.
5 21.3 The Missouri Compromise *When Congress returns in 1820 Maine is also now asking to be admitted into the Union as a free state.*Congress finally agrees to a compromise that will admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Congress also draws an imaginary line across the Louisiana Territory at 36*30’ latitude that bans slavery north of that line forever.MissouriCompromise
6 21.4 The Missouri Compromise Unravels *For a while the Missouri Compromise puts the issue of slavery to rest.*However, because of the Second Great Awakening of the 1820’s and 1830’s spiritual leaders call for the abolition of slavery all together.
7 21.4 Continued…Gag Rule*1836 Congress votes to table all anti-slavery petitions.Southern Fears*Abolitionists continue to attack slavery in books, newspapers and atpublic meetings.*Southerners resent abolitionists’ attacks as an assault on their wayof life.*Southern states adopt strict new laws to control the movement ofslaves.Fugitive Slaves*Slaves are escaping to the Northand are being helped by Northerners.This further outrages Southerners.
8 21.4 Continued… Wilmot Proviso *1846 Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot insists that slaverywill not exist in any part of the territory that might be acquired fromMexico.*1849 California applies for admissionto the Union as a free state.*Northerners welcome Californiawith open arms.*Southerners reject California’srequest.
9 Test Prep The Missouri Compromise A) upset the balance between slave and free states in the Senate.B) was met by loud, violent protests.C) quieted the slavery debate for a while.D) led the South to secede from the Union.Answer: C) quieted the slavery debate for a while.
10 Test Prep How did the Second Great Awakening affect the slavery issue? A) It inspired many Americans to dedicate their lives to ending slavery.B) It forced southerners to admit that owning slaves was a sin.C) It upset the balance between slave and free states in Congress.D) It opened the question of whether slavery should spread westward.Answer: A) It inspired many Americans to dedicate their lives to ending slavery.
11 21.5 The Compromise of 1850 Something for Everyone *Henry Clay proposes that California be admitted as a free state, NewMexico and Utah territories will be open to slavery.*1850 Congress accepts Clay’s proposal.
12 21.6 The Compromise Satisfies No One Fugitive Slave Law*Both sides are unhappy with it.*Northerners refuse to support the law.*This infuriates slaveholders and makes the law impossible to enforce.FugitiveSlave Law
13 21.6 Continued… Uncle Tom’s Cabin *1851 Harriet Beecher Stowe writes a novel about the horrors of slavery.*1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published. In the North it is welcomed andpraised. In the South, it is scorned and cursed.Harriet BeecherStowe
14 Test PrepWhich part of the Compromise of 1850 created the most controversy during the 1850’s?A) the admission of California as a free states.B) the organization of New Mexico and Utah as territories open to slavery.C) the ending of the slave trade in Washington D.C.D) the passage of a strong fugitive slave law to return runaway slaves to their owners.Answer: D) the passage of a strong fugitive slave law to return runaway slaves to their owners.
15 21.6 Continued… Ostend Manifesto 1854 *Message that urges the US government to seize Cuba by force fromSpain if they refuse to sell the island.*Northerners see this as the South’s way of getting another slave stateinto the Union.Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854*Creates two new territories,Kansas and Nebraska.*Leaves it up to those who settlethe areas whether to becomefree or slave territories.Kansas-Nebraska Act
16 Test Prep The Kansas-Nebraska Act A) led to bloodshed over slavery in Kansas.B) settled the slavery issue in Nebraska.C) banned slavery in Kansas and Nebraska.D) was a successful compromise on slavery.Answer: A) Led to bloodshed over slavery in Kansas.
17 21.7 The Dred Scott Decision *Missouri slave named Dred Scott travels with his owner toWisconsin, where slavery is banned.*Upon returning to Missouri Scott goes to court to win his freedom.*1857 by a vote of five to four, Supreme Court decides 1) that Scottcan not sue for his freedom because he is not a citizen and 2) thatScott’s stay in Wisconsin does not make him a free man because theMissouri Compromise is unconstitutional.*This allows slavery in allterritories.Dred Scott Decision
18 Test PrepIn the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court ruled that slaveryA) was a blot on our national character.B) could be allowed in the territories.C) violated the Fifth Amendment.D) should be ended by Congress.Answer: B) could be allowed in the territories.
19 21.8 From Compromise to Crisis *Anti-slavery activists form the Republican Party.*1858-In Illinois, Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln to run forSenate. His opponent will be Senator Stephen Douglas.Lincoln-Douglas Debates*Douglas argues the Dred Scott Decision ended the slavery issue.*Lincoln argues that slavery is a moral, not a legal issue.*Lincoln loses the election but he becomes a national figure for anti-slavery.Lincoln-DouglassDebatesLincoln-DouglassDebatesDocumentary
20 21.8 Continued… John Brown’s Raid Brown leads a raid to seize the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry,Virginia. He wants to arm slaves for a rebellion that would destroyslavery forever.*Raid is a failure. His men are killed in battle and Brown is capturedand hanged for treason.John Brown’s RaidHarper’s Ferry, andJohn Brown’s Raid
21 Test Prep John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry A) triggered a widespread slave rebellion.B) was widely approved across the South.C) was condemned by Abraham Lincoln.D) made Brown a hero among abolitionists.Answer: D) Made Brown a hero among abolitionists.
22 21.8 Continued… Election of 1860 *Republicans unite behind Lincoln. *Democrats split between Stephen Douglas and John C. Breckinridgeof Kentucky.*Group called the Constitutional Union Party nominates John Bell ofTennessee.*Abraham Lincoln wins with overwhelming support in the North.*Southerners see this as the last straw because they fear Lincolnwill abolish slavery altogether.*L-R clockwise:Douglas,Breckinridge,Bell, Lincoln.
23 Test Prep The election of 1860 showed how A) deeply divided the nation was over slavery.B) popular Lincoln was in the North and the South.C) little support abolitionists had in the North.D) eager Americans were to end the debate over slavery.Answer: A) deeply divided the nation was over slavery.
24 21.9 Secession*Dec. 20th, 1860 Lincoln states that he will not interfere with slavery inthe South.But he also states that he will enforce the Fugitive Slave Law and thathe will not allow slavery in the territories.*That same day South Carolina votes to leave the Union. Six morestates soon follow South Carolina’s lead.Civil War*March 4, 1861 Lincoln becomes president.*April 12, 1861 rebels fire on Fort Sumterin Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.*The fort falls after 33 hours.*Stars and Stripes replaced witha flag of surrender.*The Civil War Begins.
25 Test Prep What event turned the secession crisis into a civil war? A) the election of Lincoln as president.B) John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry.C) South Carolina’s shelling of Fort Sumter.D) the attack of Preston Brooks on Charles Sumner.Answer: C) South Carolina’s shelling of Fort Sumter.