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Yvette Miller, Kim Nairn, and Kate Gannon Murdoch University Portec Veterinary Services Pigs Lecture 1 ANS 101 / VET 242 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Yvette Miller, Kim Nairn, and Kate Gannon Murdoch University Portec Veterinary Services Pigs Lecture 1 ANS 101 / VET 242 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Yvette Miller, Kim Nairn, and Kate Gannon Murdoch University Portec Veterinary Services Pigs Lecture 1 ANS 101 / VET

2 Pig industry overview Why are pigs important? How did the pig industry develop? What pig breeds are involved? How is the industry structured? What are the key performance indicators? What influences these key performance indicators?

3 Why are pigs important? Meat – 40% of the global meat consumption Skin and leather products Pharmaceutical products – heart valves Pleasure and company – pet pigs

4 MEAT Yes… all from one wonderful, magical animal!

5 Pork cuts

6 Country Millions of pigs China460 (62% global pork eaten in China) India17 Indonesia6 Korea North3 Korea South9 Malaysia2 Myanmar4 New Zealand0.4 Philippines12 Taiwan7 Thailand7 Vietnam22

7 Our impact on the planet – The Carbon Footprint of Pork Food kg CO 2 -e/kg (20 years)kg CO 2 -e/kg (100 years) Beef Sheep meat and wool Pig meat Rice Poultry Wheat

8 The Artiodactyla – even toes Pigs Also cattle and camels And even related to the whales - Ambulocetus

9 One of the early pigs Entelodont

10 Today's suina - suborder Hippopotamdae Tayassuidae Suidae

11

12 Sus scrofa – The domestic pig Large white Landrace Duroc Hampshire

13 Tamworth Berkshire Meishan Duroc x LW

14 Meishan

15 How did the pig industry develop Small numbers of pigs per farmer Side business to other farming = grain production and/or dairy (to use by-products)

16 Feeding pigs in WA Barley and Wheat = main grains (energy) Lupins and canola = protein. Swill feeding is illegal: – Meat and bone meal does not count (heat treated) – Definition is different between states of Australia

17 The global change in pork $

18 Pork price, feed price and farmers…

19 StatePercentage NSW30 Queensland21 Victoria19 South Australia17 Western Australia12 Where is the grain? Where are the pigs?

20 Western Australia 26,000 sows. Major foreign market Singapore Sow Herd WA Year Sows Producers Sows Producers

21 How is the industry structured? Multiplication farms 6000 sows Commercial farms 90,000 sows Males (boars) Females (gilts) Nucleus farm 500 sows

22 How is the farm designed Breeding Gestation 115 days Farrowing Weaning Grow/finish Slaughter Selection Nucleus farm Basic Pig Life Cycle

23 Lets walk the farm… Breeder shed Gestation shed Farrowing shed Weaner shed Grower/Finisher shed And speak the jargon and key performance indicators as we go…

24 Breeder shed Boar – entire male Barrow/Castrate – surgically castrated Gilt – birth to first litter female Sow – breeding female has had a litter

25 Breeder / Gestation shed – key performance indicators TargetInterference Wean to re-mate (service) interval 5 days>7 days Sow feed in tonnes / year 1.1>1.2 Farrowing rate87 %<82 % Breeding/service/mating – As implied Wean to service/breeding interval – Number of days between weaning and breeding Repeat/Return – Failure to conceive (18-24 days) Farrowing rate – Number females farrowed/Number females bred Culling – Removal from herd/farm (eg. parity >6)

26 Gestation shed Parity = Number of farrowings. Gestation = state of pregnancy Dry Sow = period other than lactating

27 Farrowing shed Litter = group of piglets reared by a sow Piglet/Sucker = piglet still on a sow Farrowing = parturition / giving birth Lactating = producing milk

28 Farrowing shed – key performance indicators TargetInterference Pigs born alive/sow 10.9<10.4 Pre-weaning mortality 10 %>14% Pre-weaning mortality – % piglet deaths between birth and weaning Pigs sold per sow per year 23<21.5

29 Stillborn Mummified foetus or Mummy Target <7% Interference >10% Target <1.5% Interference >2.5%

30 Processing piglets Castration Teeth clipping Iron injection Ear notching Tail docking

31 More jargon for farrowing shed… Fostering – practice of swapping piglets across litters Colostrum – antibody rich milk Body condition score

32 Weaner shed Weaning – removing piglets from the sow (usually 3-5 wks; 5-12kg) Weaner – piglet from weaning until 10 weeks (30kg)

33 Grower/Finisher Shed Grower (30-60kg; wks) Finisher (60-110kg; wks)

34 Post-weaning – key performance indicators TargetInterference Post-weaning mortality 3%5% Feed conversion ratio (4-100kg) 2.2>2.4 Average daily gain (g/day) 570<520 Post-weaning mortality = % piglet deaths after weaning

35 What influences the key performance indicators? 1. ANIMAL: Genetics 2. ENVIRONMENT (examples): FEED – particle size, FCR, mash vs steam pelleted diets. WATER – water access, flow rates AIR – gases, drafts, temperature FLOOR – stocking rate Code of Welfare - Pigs

36 Web resource


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