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Dr. Thomas E. Socha.  Largest Duroc Breeder  Most Litters recorded each Year  More Genetic Diversity than other Duroc Breeders  Continually out.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Thomas E. Socha.  Largest Duroc Breeder  Most Litters recorded each Year  More Genetic Diversity than other Duroc Breeders  Continually out."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Thomas E. Socha

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3  Largest Duroc Breeder  Most Litters recorded each Year  More Genetic Diversity than other Duroc Breeders  Continually out perform other Duroc breeders ▪ National Barrow show ▪ Other NPPC tests

4  Six A.I. Centers use only Waldo Duroc or Duroc Cross terminal sires  Use pooled semen for commercial producers  Approximately 1,000 boars per year  Large producers use only Waldo boars in their private A. I. centers

5  Several National Tests have proven Waldo’s are the best  Best for Growth Rate  Best for Feed Efficiency  Best at National Barrow Show based on the performance of their Offspring  Have been Tested against other Durocs, PIC, Danbred and other companies

6  Herds Originated from Caesarean derived pigs  Herd additions are by lab or A.I. only  No live pigs are brought into the Nucleus herds  Continual Blood Testing and Slaughter inspections

7  Growth Rate  Feed Efficiency  Carcass Lean Percentage  Meat Quality  Body Conformation  Continual Selection for Economically Important Traits

8  Duroc are fastest growing of all pigs  York and Landrace are the fastest growing of York and Landrace in the U.S.  Based on data from National Swine Registry

9  Fewer Days for getting to Market weight  From 30kg to Market – Groups average daily gains are kg / day  Reduce the amount of Finisher Space Needed  At.6kg per day you need space for 121 days  At.8kg per day you need space for 91 days

10  Results from Rapid Lean Growth  Growth Rate and Leanness are related to Efficiency by 30%  Saving 10% in Feed Usage can result in 90rmb per pig or rmb per litter  This is worth more than getting 2 more pigs per litter  Best way to DECREASE production costs

11  Presently most pigs are at 3.0 feed conversion  Waldo pigs can be 2.7 – 2.8 conversion  Save.3kg of feed for each kg of pig weight  100 kg pig will save 30 kg of feed  At 3rmb per kg of feed (3 X 30 = 90rmb)  Each litter has 9-10 pigs (810 – 900rmb / litter)  2 extra pigs / litter 350rmb (175rmb / pig)  Improved feed efficiency is more important than increasing litter size

12  By the U.S. system Waldo Pigs average 56 – 60 % lean  This is at kg  This is considered the ideal lean percentage for commercial pigs  Pigs that are too lean cause problems in skinning and in having thin bellies

13  Started testing 1992  High pH Values  High Intramuscular Fat Percentage  Good Color Scores (Visual & Minolta)  Thick Belly Walls that are Firm  Excellent Meat Flavor

14  Proper feet and leg structure for longevity  Higher percent of high value cuts  Loin, Ham and Belly  Ability to grow fast and stay lean at heavier weight which may become more important in China than what is considered today

15  Growth rate, Leanness, and litter size  Have proven Continual Genetic improvement over the last twenty years  Customers can be assured that the Genetics they get in the future will be improved above the current Genetics  Changes made in the selection techniques over time will reflect what is best for the swine industry

16  Many factors are used to produce the best pigs  Waldo pigs in China will follow the same procedures as those used in the U.S.  Many of the procedures have been used for over 40 years in the U.S.

17  Data collected on over 95% of all pigs raised on the farm  Growth rate and backfat  Litter traits added 1980  Loin size added 1992

18  Need to test as Many pigs as possible to find the very BEST  Methods must be as easy as possible to help get the job done  Could be testing 300 pigs per week  At 60 pigs/ hour – 5hours per week  Need to Adjust all Records to a Standard  Backfat at 100kg  Days to 100kg  Loin size at 100kg  Litter weaning weights at 21 or 28 Days

19  The Most Important item in a Selection program is MAKING GENETIC improvement  A Consistent program must be followed over time  When Methods of Evaluation, testing procedures and Indexes are decided, they should not change for at least 5 years  Re-evaluation of all procedures is required every years

20 Boars Gilts – Top 25% mean

21  Growth- heritability =.35  Days to market - standard deviation = 10 days  Feed efficiency  Leanness – heritability =.50  Backfat – standard deviation = 2.0 mm  Loin eye size  Reproduction – heritability =.20  Number of pigs born and raised – standard deviation = 2.0 pigs

22  Days to market  days to 100 kg  days to 115 kg  About 1 day per year improvement  Backfat  mm at 100 kg  mm at 115 kg  About 0.3 mm decrease per year

23  Requires Labor and Dedication  Litter Birth weights  Number Born Alive  21 Day litter weights  Number at 21 Days  Weight, Backfat, Loin Size at about days  Meat Quality Traits

24  Sow Productivity Index (SPI)  In Herdsman program (sow index)  Litter birth weight  Number born alive  21 day litter weight  Survival at 21 days Used for evaluating and culling sows

25  Terminal Breeds – used for sire side  Growth rate 50%  Leanness 30%  Litter traits 20% (SPI values)  Maternal Breeds – Used for female side  Litter Traits 40% (SPI values)  Growth rate 40%  Leanness 20%

26  Selection  Keeping the best animals ▪ Boars ▪ Gilts  Culling  Sell poorest animals ▪ Performance of Offspring ▪ Reproduction of females

27  Rank each sex by their breed index after testing - most important part of selection  Determine how many of each sex must be selected  Evaluate 200% of needed boars-phenotype  If we need 2, we select the top 4 to evaluate  Evaluate 150% of needed gilts-phenotype  If we need 20, we select the top 30 to evaluate

28  Length of body  Loin Width  Levelness of the top  Levelness of rump  Width of hams  Too large can affect the ability to move or to decrease longevity in breeding system  Too small can reduce overall leanness and decrease high quality meat cuts  Depth of chest

29  Genetic Change = Selection intensity X heritability X standard deviation  Change per Year = Genetic Change / generation interval  Age of parents when replacements are born  Ideally the generation interval should be about years

30  We need to make genetic progress, so we need to turn generations as quickly as possible  Boars should generally be used for 9 – 12 months  Females should generally be used to produce 2 -3 litters  If we keep the same animals around for three years we make no progress during that time

31  We expect the next generation to be better than the last if we are selecting properly  Cull boars based on breeding percentage, offspring performance and feet and legs  Females should be culled based upon SPI values and for injury problems  Should cull 20% of each group weaned  Each female will farrow 2.4 times / year  This will mean culling 50% per year

32 Breeder herd progress Buyer herd Generations of Breeding One generation behind

33  Maternal Effects  Litter size  Milking Ability  York and Landrace  Terminal Effects  Growth Rate  Feed Efficiency  Duroc is the Best

34  Advantages of crossbred pigs  Heterosis effects – greatest for traits with lower heritabilities  Two breed gilts  One extra pig born – Y=11.9, L=11.8; then Y X L = =12.85  Three breed market hogs  100% heterosis = 7 days faster to market

35  If all replacements come from Nucleus herd  Maternal traits  Must produce  Must raise pigs  Culling 15% in each group  Annual culling about 35-40%

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37  Rations need to have all essential ingredients  Protein  Energy  Vitamins  Minerals

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39  Testing of Pigs  All Pigs have performance data  Tested at 100 kg ( kg)  Growth  Back fat  Loin eye area Ultra sound equipment Aloka 500

40 Mr. Fu, owner of Liuma-Waldo JV farm at Beijing

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50  Need five or six different rations  Starter feed  N1 (10 – 15 kg)  N2 (15 – 30 kg)  F1 (30 – 70 kg)  F2 (70 – 100 kg)  Feed Full Feed (ad-lib) until 120kg

51  Limit Feed from 120 kg to breeding  2.5 kg per day  Want gilts to gain 450 grams per day  Increase feed two weeks before breeding  Flushing effect to improve litter size  Limit feed from breeding to 100days  2.5 kg per day

52  Feed 0 kg on day they farrow  Bring up to full feed  York and Landrace – about 5 days ▪ Increase 1.5 kg per day  Duroc – about 7 days ▪ Increase 1.0 kg per day  Weight loss in Lactation- 18 – 20 kg

53 Protein Milk Body Reproduction

54  Farrowing House  Fill in one week  Nursery  Fill in 1 – 2 weeks  Can be from 2 farrowing rooms  Finisher  Fill with 1 – 2 weeks ages

55  Must circulate and change air  Sow Housing And Finishing  Cool Season – use natural ventilation  Hot Season – use tunnel ventilation with cool cells  Farrowing and Nursery  Use multiple inlets with fan exhaust  Could have cool cell for hot weather


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