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Seminar July 2012 – Waldo Pigs

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Presentation on theme: "Seminar July 2012 – Waldo Pigs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Seminar July 2012 – Waldo Pigs
Dr. Thomas E. Socha


3 Status of Waldo Pigs in U.S.
Largest Duroc Breeder Most Litters recorded each Year More Genetic Diversity than other Duroc Breeders Continually out perform other Duroc breeders National Barrow show Other NPPC tests

4 Waldo Boars used in A.I. Six A.I. Centers use only Waldo Duroc or Duroc Cross terminal sires Use pooled semen for commercial producers Approximately 1,000 boars per year Large producers use only Waldo boars in their private A. I. centers

5 Best Pig Performance Several National Tests have proven Waldo’s are the best Best for Growth Rate Best for Feed Efficiency Best at National Barrow Show based on the performance of their Offspring Have been Tested against other Durocs, PIC, Danbred and other companies

6 Top Health Program Herds Originated from Caesarean derived pigs
Herd additions are by lab or A.I. only No live pigs are brought into the Nucleus herds Continual Blood Testing and Slaughter inspections

7 Advantages of Waldo Pigs
Growth Rate Feed Efficiency Carcass Lean Percentage Meat Quality Body Conformation Continual Selection for Economically Important Traits

8 Waldo pigs in the U.S. Duroc are fastest growing of all pigs
York and Landrace are the fastest growing of York and Landrace in the U.S. Based on data from National Swine Registry

9 Growth Rate Fewer Days for getting to Market weight
From 30kg to Market – Groups average daily gains are kg / day Reduce the amount of Finisher Space Needed At .6kg per day you need space for 121 days At .8kg per day you need space for 91 days

10 Feed Efficiency Results from Rapid Lean Growth
Growth Rate and Leanness are related to Efficiency by 30% Saving 10% in Feed Usage can result in 90rmb per pig or rmb per litter This is worth more than getting 2 more pigs per litter Best way to DECREASE production costs

11 Feed Efficiency Example
Presently most pigs are at 3.0 feed conversion Waldo pigs can be 2.7 – 2.8 conversion Save .3kg of feed for each kg of pig weight 100 kg pig will save 30 kg of feed At 3rmb per kg of feed (3 X 30 = 90rmb) Each litter has 9-10 pigs (810 – 900rmb / litter) 2 extra pigs / litter 350rmb (175rmb / pig) Improved feed efficiency is more important than increasing litter size

12 Carcass Lean Percentage
By the U.S. system Waldo Pigs average 56 – 60 % lean This is at kg This is considered the ideal lean percentage for commercial pigs Pigs that are too lean cause problems in skinning and in having thin bellies

13 Meat Quality Started testing 1992 High pH Values
High Intramuscular Fat Percentage Good Color Scores (Visual & Minolta) Thick Belly Walls that are Firm Excellent Meat Flavor

14 Body Conformation Proper feet and leg structure for longevity
Higher percent of high value cuts Loin, Ham and Belly Ability to grow fast and stay lean at heavier weight which may become more important in China than what is considered today

15 Continual Selection for Economically Important Traits
Growth rate, Leanness, and litter size Have proven Continual Genetic improvement over the last twenty years Customers can be assured that the Genetics they get in the future will be improved above the current Genetics Changes made in the selection techniques over time will reflect what is best for the swine industry

16 Selecting and Breeding in the Waldo Farm System
Many factors are used to produce the best pigs Waldo pigs in China will follow the same procedures as those used in the U.S. Many of the procedures have been used for over 40 years in the U.S.

17 How did they become the BEST
Data collected on over 95% of all pigs raised on the farm Growth rate and backfat -1960 Litter traits added 1980 Loin size added 1992

18 Performance Testing of Pigs
Need to test as Many pigs as possible to find the very BEST Methods must be as easy as possible to help get the job done Could be testing 300 pigs per week At 60 pigs/ hour – 5hours per week Need to Adjust all Records to a Standard Backfat at 100kg Days to 100kg Loin size at 100kg Litter weaning weights at 21 or 28 Days

19 Genetic Improvement The Most Important item in a Selection program is MAKING GENETIC improvement A Consistent program must be followed over time When Methods of Evaluation, testing procedures and Indexes are decided, they should not change for at least 5 years Re-evaluation of all procedures is required every 5-10 years

20 Normal Distribution Gilts – Top 25% Boars mean

21 Traits for Total Improvement
Growth- heritability = .35 Days to market - standard deviation = 10 days Feed efficiency Leanness – heritability = .50 Backfat – standard deviation = 2.0 mm Loin eye size Reproduction – heritability = .20 Number of pigs born and raised – standard deviation = 2.0 pigs

22 Changes in last 30 Years at Waldo
Days to market days to 100 kg days to 115 kg About 1 day per year improvement Backfat mm at 100 kg mm at 115 kg About 0.3 mm decrease per year

23 Records That Must Be Kept
Requires Labor and Dedication Litter Birth weights Number Born Alive 21 Day litter weights Number at 21 Days Weight, Backfat, Loin Size at about days Meat Quality Traits

24 Indexes Needed for Genetic Improvement
Sow Productivity Index (SPI) In Herdsman program (sow index) Litter birth weight Number born alive 21 day litter weight Survival at 21 days Used for evaluating and culling sows

25 Indexes (cont.) Terminal Breeds – used for sire side
Growth rate 50% Leanness 30% Litter traits 20% (SPI values) Maternal Breeds – Used for female side Litter Traits 40% (SPI values) Growth rate 40% Leanness 20%

26 Building a Good Herd Selection Culling Keeping the best animals
Boars Gilts Culling Sell poorest animals Performance of Offspring Reproduction of females

27 Selection of Boars and Gilts
Rank each sex by their breed index after testing - most important part of selection Determine how many of each sex must be selected Evaluate 200% of needed boars-phenotype If we need 2, we select the top 4 to evaluate Evaluate 150% of needed gilts-phenotype If we need 20, we select the top 30 to evaluate

28 Body Conformation Length of body Loin Width Levelness of the top
Levelness of rump Width of hams Too large can affect the ability to move or to decrease longevity in breeding system Too small can reduce overall leanness and decrease high quality meat cuts Depth of chest

29 Genetic Change per Year
Genetic Change = Selection intensity X heritability X standard deviation Change per Year = Genetic Change / generation interval Age of parents when replacements are born Ideally the generation interval should be about years

30 Using Boars and Females
We need to make genetic progress, so we need to turn generations as quickly as possible Boars should generally be used for 9 – 12 months Females should generally be used to produce 2 -3 litters If we keep the same animals around for three years we make no progress during that time

31 Culling Boars and Females
We expect the next generation to be better than the last if we are selecting properly Cull boars based on breeding percentage, offspring performance and feet and legs Females should be culled based upon SPI values and for injury problems Should cull 20% of each group weaned Each female will farrow 2.4 times / year This will mean culling 50% per year

32 Expected progress in buyer herd
Breeder herd progress Genetic Change Buyer herd One generation behind Generations of Breeding

33 Using the Best Breeds Maternal Effects Terminal Effects Litter size
Milking Ability York and Landrace Terminal Effects Growth Rate Feed Efficiency Duroc is the Best

34 Using Top Genetics for Crossing
Advantages of crossbred pigs Heterosis effects – greatest for traits with lower heritabilities Two breed gilts One extra pig born – Y=11.9, L=11.8; then Y X L = =12.85 Three breed market hogs 100% heterosis = 7 days faster to market

35 Testing in F1 producing herds
If all replacements come from Nucleus herd Maternal traits Must produce Must raise pigs Culling 15% in each group Annual culling about 35-40%


37 Nutrition for Good performance
Rations need to have all essential ingredients Protein Energy Vitamins Minerals


39 Assurance of Performance
Testing of Pigs All Pigs have performance data Tested at 100 kg ( kg) Growth Back fat Loin eye area Ultra sound equipment Aloka 500

40 Mr. Fu, owner of Liuma-Waldo
JV farm at Beijing










50 Feeding Breeding Stock
Need five or six different rations Starter feed N1 (10 – 15 kg) N2 (15 – 30 kg) F1 (30 – 70 kg) F2 (70 – 100 kg) Feed Full Feed (ad-lib) until 120kg

51 Feeding Breeding Stock
Limit Feed from 120 kg to breeding 2.5 kg per day Want gilts to gain 450 grams per day Increase feed two weeks before breeding Flushing effect to improve litter size Limit feed from breeding to 100days

52 Feeding in Lactation Feed 0 kg on day they farrow
Bring up to full feed York and Landrace – about 5 days Increase 1.5 kg per day Duroc – about 7 days Increase 1.0 kg per day Weight loss in Lactation- 18 – 20 kg

53 Protein Usage in sows Body Protein Reproduction Milk

54 All In – All Out Production
Farrowing House Fill in one week Nursery Fill in 1 – 2 weeks Can be from 2 farrowing rooms Finisher Fill with 1 – 2 weeks ages

55 Building Ventilation Must circulate and change air
Sow Housing And Finishing Cool Season – use natural ventilation Hot Season – use tunnel ventilation with cool cells Farrowing and Nursery Use multiple inlets with fan exhaust Could have cool cell for hot weather

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