2Atoms The nucleus of an atom includes: protons and neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus in specific energy levels.
3ElementsThe number of protons never changes – this equals the atomic number. (If the number of protons changes, it is a different element.)The number of electrons generally equals the number of protons (We won’t worry about exceptions in this class.)Atomic NumberAtomic Mass
5Chemical Bonds 3 main types of chemical bonds: Covalent - atoms share electrons equallyIonic – one atom hogs the electrons from another (Think of it like a 5-year-old taking a 3-year-old’s toy and hogging it.)
7Organic VS InorganicOrganic compounds contain carbon and are found in living thingsExceptions: hydrogencarbonates (bicarbonate HCO3-, carbonates (CO32−)and oxides of carbon (CO or CO2)
8Monomer Mono = one Mere = part Sub units that are strung together to create larger molecules
9PolymerPoly =manyLarge molecule made up of multiple monomers
10Think Pair ShareCreate an analogy to explain the relationship between monomers and polymers.
11Dehydration Synthesis Hydro = waterA reaction that links together monomersRemoves a –H from one monomer and a –OH from the other monomerThose come together to form a water molecule H2ORequires energy to build moleculesExample: Your liver links glucoses together to form a stable storage molecule called glycogen (aka animal starch)
13Hydrolysis Hydro = water Lysis = break Breaks down polymers Breaks a bond between monomersUses water to add an –H to one monomer and an –OH to the otherReleases energyExample – salivary amylase breaks starch into disaccharide sugar in your mouth while you chew
15Think Pair ShareDraw a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis.
16Carbohydrates Elements: C,H,O in 1:2:1 ratio Generally in the shape of a hexagon or pentagonMonomer: Monosaccharide (simple sugars - glucose)Polymers:Disaccharide – 2 monosaccharides (complex sugars - sucrose)Polysaccharide – many monosaccharides (starch, cellulose)Names end in –oseOse= sugarSacchar = sugar
17Monosaccharides Use: quick energy Foods: fruits (Fructose), candy (glucose), milk (Galactose)Produced: process of photosynthesis in the organelle chloroplastYour brain runs on glucose!
19DisaccharidesUse: quick energyFoods: Table sugar (sucrose)Malt sugar (maltose - forms from breakdown of starches including grains)Milk sugar (lactose – think lactose intolerant)Produced by plants storing products of photosynthesis process carried out in the organelle the chloroplast – think maple syrup
21PolysaccharidesUses: quick energy, (but more stable to store than glucose) and structure (cell walls of plants made of cellulose)Foods: Potatoes , bread, pasta (starch), Bran Fiber (cellulose indigestible for humans)Produced by liver from excess blood sugar and made by plants into cell walls from glucose made during photosynthesis by the chloroplast
23Construct a Carbohydrate With a partner use marshmallows and toothpicks to construct the following molecules:MonosaccharideDisaccharidePolysaccharide (4 glucoses long)You must have me check each molecule before moving on.
24Lipids (Oils, Fats, Waxes) Elements: C,H,O but NOT in 1:2:1 ratioGenerally in the shape of a glycerol with one or 2 tails.Monomers: Glycerol and Fatty Acid ChainsPolymers: Triglycerides made from1 glycerol plus 3 fatty acid chains
26LipidsUses: Long term energy storage, cell membranes (cholesterol and phospholipids),Foods: olive oil, avocados, butter, lard, beeswaxProduced by process of dehydration synthesis in the organelle smooth ERYour body uses it for chemical messengers (steroids), insulation and padding your organs
27Oils VS Fats Oils are liquid and fats are solid at room temperature Oils are stored in seeds of plantsFats are stored under skin or around organs of animals
28Think Pair ShareWhat types of foods would you eat to avoid a high fat diet?
35ProteinsUses: Structure of body tissues - muscles, bones, blood, hair, skin - most of your bodyFoods: Egg whites, meat, fish, beansProduced by process of protein synthesis in the organelle ribosome (made from recipe in DNA)
36Folding a Protein A – amino acid sequence -1st level B/C – amino acids are twisted or folded – 2nd levelD – the twisted chain is folded – 3rd levelE – multiple chains are arranged together – 4th level (hemoglobin)
37Think Pair ShareWhat is the difference between a polypeptide and a protein?
39Construct a ProteinWith a partner use Fruit Loops and string to construct a polypeptide chain 20 amino acids long. Then fold up your chain to create a protein.
40Nucleic Acids Elements: C,H,O,N,P Monomers: Nucleotides Nucleotides are made of a phosphate group, a sugar (deoxyribose DNA or ribose RNA) and a Nitrogen BaseNucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, (uracil)Polymers: DNA, RNA
42Nucleic AcidsUses: DNA carries genetic information and directions to make proteinsRNA makes proteins and is the structure of the ribosomeProduced by the process of DNA replication in the nucleus from existing DNA