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Chemistry Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry Notes

2 Atoms The nucleus of an atom includes: protons and neutrons.
Electrons orbit the nucleus in specific energy levels.

3 Elements The number of protons never changes – this equals the atomic number. (If the number of protons changes, it is a different element.) The number of electrons generally equals the number of protons (We won’t worry about exceptions in this class.) Atomic Number Atomic Mass


5 Chemical Bonds 3 main types of chemical bonds:
Covalent - atoms share electrons equally Ionic – one atom hogs the electrons from another (Think of it like a 5-year-old taking a 3-year-old’s toy and hogging it.)

6 Macromolecules

7 Organic VS Inorganic Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things Exceptions: hydrogencarbonates (bicarbonate HCO3-, carbonates (CO32−)and oxides of carbon (CO or CO2)

8 Monomer Mono = one Mere = part
Sub units that are strung together to create larger molecules

9 Polymer Poly =many Large molecule made up of multiple monomers

10 Think Pair Share Create an analogy to explain the relationship between monomers and polymers.

11 Dehydration Synthesis
Hydro = water A reaction that links together monomers Removes a –H from one monomer and a –OH from the other monomer Those come together to form a water molecule H2O Requires energy to build molecules Example: Your liver links glucoses together to form a stable storage molecule called glycogen (aka animal starch)

12 Dehydration Synthesis Sucrose

13 Hydrolysis Hydro = water Lysis = break Breaks down polymers
Breaks a bond between monomers Uses water to add an –H to one monomer and an –OH to the other Releases energy Example – salivary amylase breaks starch into disaccharide sugar in your mouth while you chew

14 Hydrolysis of Sucrose

15 Think Pair Share Draw a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis.

16 Carbohydrates Elements: C,H,O in 1:2:1 ratio
Generally in the shape of a hexagon or pentagon Monomer: Monosaccharide (simple sugars - glucose) Polymers: Disaccharide – 2 monosaccharides (complex sugars - sucrose) Polysaccharide – many monosaccharides (starch, cellulose) Names end in –ose Ose= sugar Sacchar = sugar

17 Monosaccharides Use: quick energy
Foods: fruits (Fructose), candy (glucose), milk (Galactose) Produced: process of photosynthesis in the organelle chloroplast Your brain runs on glucose!

18 Simple sugar foods

19 Disaccharides Use: quick energy Foods: Table sugar (sucrose) Malt sugar (maltose - forms from breakdown of starches including grains) Milk sugar (lactose – think lactose intolerant) Produced by plants storing products of photosynthesis process carried out in the organelle the chloroplast – think maple syrup

20 Complex sugar foods

21 Polysaccharides Uses: quick energy, (but more stable to store than glucose) and structure (cell walls of plants made of cellulose) Foods: Potatoes , bread, pasta (starch), Bran Fiber (cellulose indigestible for humans) Produced by liver from excess blood sugar and made by plants into cell walls from glucose made during photosynthesis by the chloroplast

22 Starchy foods

23 Construct a Carbohydrate
With a partner use marshmallows and toothpicks to construct the following molecules: Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide (4 glucoses long) You must have me check each molecule before moving on.

24 Lipids (Oils, Fats, Waxes)
Elements: C,H,O but NOT in 1:2:1 ratio Generally in the shape of a glycerol with one or 2 tails. Monomers: Glycerol and Fatty Acid Chains Polymers: Triglycerides made from1 glycerol plus 3 fatty acid chains

25 Constructing a Triglyceride

26 Lipids Uses: Long term energy storage, cell membranes (cholesterol and phospholipids), Foods: olive oil, avocados, butter, lard, beeswax Produced by process of dehydration synthesis in the organelle smooth ER Your body uses it for chemical messengers (steroids), insulation and padding your organs

27 Oils VS Fats Oils are liquid and fats are solid at room temperature
Oils are stored in seeds of plants Fats are stored under skin or around organs of animals

28 Think Pair Share What types of foods would you eat to avoid a high fat diet?

29 Fatty foods

30 Saturated VS Unsaturated Fats
Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds between carbons so they do not have all the possible hydrogens

31 Constructing a Lipid With a partner use orange slices, licorice and toothpicks to construct a triglyceride molecule You must show me your molecule before you move on.

32 Proteins Elements: C, H, O, N, S, P
Monomer: Amino Acids (20 different) Polymer: Polypeptides that are folded into proteins

33 Amino Acid Structure

34 20 different amino acids

35 Proteins Uses: Structure of body tissues - muscles, bones, blood, hair, skin - most of your body Foods: Egg whites, meat, fish, beans Produced by process of protein synthesis in the organelle ribosome (made from recipe in DNA)

36 Folding a Protein A – amino acid sequence -1st level
B/C – amino acids are twisted or folded – 2nd level D – the twisted chain is folded – 3rd level E – multiple chains are arranged together – 4th level (hemoglobin)

37 Think Pair Share What is the difference between a polypeptide and a protein?

38 High Protein Foods

39 Construct a Protein With a partner use Fruit Loops and string to construct a polypeptide chain 20 amino acids long. Then fold up your chain to create a protein.

40 Nucleic Acids Elements: C,H,O,N,P Monomers: Nucleotides
Nucleotides are made of a phosphate group, a sugar (deoxyribose DNA or ribose RNA) and a Nitrogen Base Nucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, (uracil) Polymers: DNA, RNA

41 Nucleotide Structure

42 Nucleic Acids Uses: DNA carries genetic information and directions to make proteins RNA makes proteins and is the structure of the ribosome Produced by the process of DNA replication in the nucleus from existing DNA

43 x

44 DNA to Protein

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