Presentation on theme: "What does it mean to have an “unwritten Constitution”? A: Not written explicitly in the Constitution ex. Political parties, judicial review, cabinet."— Presentation transcript:
What does it mean to have an “unwritten Constitution”? A: Not written explicitly in the Constitution ex. Political parties, judicial review, cabinet
What precedents did Washington establish for future presidents?
Enter George Washington “A Born Leader” 1 st President of the United States General during the American Revolution Although he had little administrative experience, he had an “air of authority”
“The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of government, are justly considered deeply, perhaps as finally, staked on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.” George Washington, First Inaugural Address, April 1789 Who is Mr. Washington trying to appeal to?
The 1 st Cabinet “GW’s Crew” Set a pattern for future presidents Washington chose men he knew and trusted! Considered the best cabinet in U.S. History Congress created the first 3 departments of cabinet: State, treasury, and war
The 1 st Congress John Adams becomes VP after losing election Constitution stated Vice President would preside over the Senate (only job at this time) Judiciary Act of Congress organized the judicial branch 6 person Supreme Court John Jay named first chief justice
Dude where’s my money? Alexander Hamilton faced huge problems/US was in debt Hamilton’s Economic Plan Taxes on imported goods Excise tax on liquor and sugar (NOT HAPPY) National gov’t pays off debt Jefferson not happy because North had more debt than the South (South gets screwed)
Hamiltonians vs. Jeffersonians
Views of the Constitution Alexander Hamilton “Federalists” Thomas Jefferson “Democrat-Republicans” “To constrain the powers of the federal government would mean to weaken it considerably.” “Necessary and proper” clause would open the door to the abuse of power
Compromise over dinner… Capital would be moved from Philadelphia to the South, near Virginia (Jefferson wins!) Hamilton had to convince Federalists of this In return, southerners would vote for Hamilton’s debt bill to pass (Hamilton wins!)
How much power? Strict constructionist- Gov’t can only do what is specifically in the Constitution (Jefferson) Loose constructionist- Gov’t can take reasonable actions that are not outlined in the Constitution
HAMILTON / BURR
Thomas “Teflon” Jefferson “Nothing sticks” to Jefferson though he spreads information about other politicians Could he get away with it today? Believed Washington was a “monarchist bent on destroying the rule of the people and a senile follower of the policies of Alexander Hamilton” Thought Hamilton was influencing Washington (“ignorant puppet”) Letters between the men/ “Martha”
The “Reynolds Affair” Hamilton had an affair with Maria Reynolds, who requested him to help her escape her abusive husband Hamilton paid the husband over $1000 to keep it a secret Eventually Jefferson got hold of the love letters and brought them to the newspaper, exposing Hamilton’s private life Hamilton responded with a 95 page pamphlet in which he openly admitted to the affair but denied corruption
In what ways did Washington strengthen the Federal Government?
Debate over the bank Hamilton wanted Congress to create a national bank Believed bank would win support of community Bank would help the gov’t in its financial dealings Democrat-Republicans argued that the Constitution didn’t give the gov’t the authority to create a bank Hamilton said that any powers not stated in the Constitution were “implied” or needed for the common good Washington signed the bank bill into effect
1. Who is the person in the cartoon? What is he holding? 2. What is the significance of the phrase “bottling up”?
Whiskey Rebellion In 1794, Western Pennsylvania farmers protested and refused to pay the excise tax on whiskey Washington called out state militias and put down the rebellion Demonstrated that the new gov’t intended to enforce federal law
Why whiskey? Farmers had a hard time getting their grain to market, so they turned their grain into whiskey, which was easier to transport. They got more money for the whiskey anyway. Farmers traded the whiskey for salt, sugar, and other goods. Farmers used whiskey as money to get whatever supplies they needed. Farmers did not have the money to pay for the tax.
Why do you think tax collectors were tarred and feathered?
Why do you think Washington chose to lead the troops himself?
Washington’s Farewell “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world…” Washington’s Farewell Address, Summarize this quote…What is Washington saying? 2. Why do you think he said this to the American people?
Washington’s Farewell Address Before he retired, Washington gave a farewell address (speech). In it he Warned against political parties - he thought they caused arguments Urged the nation to remain neutral and not become involved in foreign alliances. Warned against a powerful military. Urged Americans to maintain and value a sense of national unity.
What were the differences between the Federalists and the Democrat-Republicans?
Hamilton versus Jefferson Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists. Thomas Jefferson led the Democratic- Republicans. Northern merchants and manufacturers became Federalists. Southern farmers and workers became Democratic-Republicans
29 The Evolution of Political Parties Federalist Party: first U.S. political party Democratic-Republicans formed in opposition to the Federalists Democratic Party developed from the Democratic-Republicans Whig Party arose to counter the Democratic Party Andrew Jackson Henry Clay Daniel Webster
Political Parties Debate between Federalists and Anti-Federalists led to the creation of a two party system Two major parties at this time were: Federalists Democrat-Republicans
32 The Role of Political Parties Parties organize individuals with similar ideas who work to effect political change Citizens may freely choose their party affiliation, or opt to have none at all Parties can represent a wide variety of interests Parties aim to elect people to government who will help pass laws in their favor
33 Third Parties in a Two-Party System Usually form in opposition to one or both major parties Have had great influence without ever winning the presidency Bring attention to important public issues ignored by the major parties Complaints about third parties: –They take votes away from major candidates with similar positions –Supporting a third-party candidate “wastes” one’s vote Third-party poster from the 1912 presidential campaign
What challenges did the United States face to remain “neutral”?
Election of 1796 Issues in the Young Nation aren't speaking to each otherFederalists and Democratic- Republicans aren't speaking to each other. End of the One-Party System
Election of 1796 The Potential Candidates John AdamsFinal candidate was the Vice-President, John Adams, who was also a Federalist, but more strong-minded. John Adams
Election of 1796 Results in the Electoral College Adams 71, Jefferson 68, and Pinckney 59. Jefferson –Adams takes Jefferson as Vice-President. –Does not trust Hamilton and Pinckney Election Results ege1796-Large.png/400px-ElectoralCollege1796-Large.png
On this week’s episode of Desperate Founding Fathers… Constitution Says…Constitution Says… –Two candidates with the most votes become President and Vice President! So….. President Adams and Vice President Jefferson are from different political partiesPresident Adams and Vice President Jefferson are from different political parties This is changed by Amendment XII (1804)This is changed by Amendment XII (1804) Predictions?Predictions?
Jay’s Treaty France and Great Britain had fought many wars Agreement between the U.S. and Great Britain designed to prevent future wars Hamilton believed it would ease tensions between the two countries Jefferson was concerned with our alliance with France and that it may suffer because of this treaty How do you think France felt?? Why?
The French Revolution Interferes American merchant ships being seized by French warshipsAmerican merchant ships being seized by French warships –French not happy with Jay’s treaty Adams sends delegates to France to negotiateAdams sends delegates to France to negotiate XYZ AffairXYZ Affair –French ministers (X, Y, & Z) requested bribes in order to enter into negotiations
XYZ Affair American Response ends the French allianceCongress ends the French alliance. Creation of a naval department. 40 warshipsCongress appropriates money to triple the size of the army and build 40 warships. comes out of retirementWashington comes out of retirement to lead the American forces. privateersAmerican privateers attack French shipping.
1.Who are the people in the cartoon? 2. What are the two men on the left doing?
Public Opinion toward France Shifts The XYZ affair - Maiden America ravaged by the French 5 members of the Directory in France Britain looking on from on high Rest of the world looking on
Fallout from XYZ Affair Many Americans calling for war with FranceMany Americans calling for war with France –Hamilton, others thought U.S. could gain land –“Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!” Adams feels that U.S. Army and Navy not strong enough to fight a major powerAdams feels that U.S. Army and Navy not strong enough to fight a major power –Sends new ministers instead Unpopular move, but….?Unpopular move, but….?
Federalists take control Public anger with France strengthens Federalists in congressPublic anger with France strengthens Federalists in congress –Win majority of both houses in 1798 –Enacted laws that were restrictive to Democratic- Republican rivals What did Washington warn about again?What did Washington warn about again?
Naturalization Act What did it do? Increases from five to fourteen number of years required to qualify for U.S. citizenshipIncreases from five to fourteen number of years required to qualify for U.S. citizenship Why would it favor the Federalists? Most immigrants voted with the Democratic- RepublicansMost immigrants voted with the Democratic- Republicans
Alien Acts What did it do? Authorized the president to deport any aliens considered to be dangerousAuthorized the president to deport any aliens considered to be dangerous Authorized the president to detain any enemy aliens in a time of warAuthorized the president to detain any enemy aliens in a time of war Why would it favor the Federalists? Democratic-Republicans sympathetic to the French RevolutionDemocratic-Republicans sympathetic to the French Revolution
The Alien & Sedition Acts The Alien Acts Naturalization ActNaturalization Act. 5 to 14 years –Increased the eligibility for citizenship from 5 to 14 years. Alien Enemies Act. President the power to arrest or expel enemies in times of "declared war." –Gave the President the power to arrest or expel enemies in times of "declared war." Alien Act. dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States –President can expel all aliens deemed "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States." The Alien Act
Sedition Act What did it do? Makes it illegal for newspapers to criticize the president or CongressMakes it illegal for newspapers to criticize the president or Congress Imposed heavy penalties for editors who violated the new lawImposed heavy penalties for editors who violated the new law –Fines –Imprisonment Why would it favor the Federalists? Are you kidding?Are you kidding? Representative Matthew Lyon of Vermont, arrested under the Sedition Act of 1798, attacking a fellow congressman
The Alien & Sedition Acts The Sedition Act Made it a crime to "impede the operation of any law." –Illegal to publish or speak criticism high government officials –Illegal to publish or speak any "false, scandalous, and malicious" criticism of high government officials. A Fight in Congress Over the Sedition Act
Judging Adams Keeps U.S. out of war, preserves neutralityKeeps U.S. out of war, preserves neutrality Strengthens the NavyStrengthens the Navy Peaceful transfer of power in 1800Peaceful transfer of power in 1800 Relationship with France damaged New taxes imposed Party politics become entrenched Dislike for the Federalist Congress and the Alien and Sedition Acts cost Adams his reelection and gave control of Congress to the Republicans. But in weighing his presidency, we have to consider the negative along with the positive:
Food for Thought Why was Jefferson’s victory in the Election of 1800 considered a “peaceful transfer of power”? Why was Jefferson’s victory in the Election of 1800 considered a “peaceful transfer of power”? How did Jefferson’s acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase contradict his political views? How did Jefferson’s acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase contradict his political views?
Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73 votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls the outcome and chooses Jefferson! Why? Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73 votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls the outcome and chooses Jefferson! Why? He hates Burr more than Jefferson! He hates Burr more than Jefferson! Thomas Jefferson became our 3 rd president Thomas Jefferson became our 3 rd president The Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress The Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress The Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution The Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution Pres and VP run as a ticket Pres and VP run as a ticket "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists." "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."
Hooray!!! Why is this significant?? Why is this significant??
The election of 1800 was the most important election in American History No one knew after the election (which lasted forever and was the closest ever) what would happen. Would the Federalists give up power peacefully or would there be revolution, secession, or civil war?? It was the first time EVER, in the history of mankind, that power had been transferred from one group to another without bloodshed and war.
The Midnight Judges The night before Jefferson is sworn in as President, John Adams does the unthinkable… The night before Jefferson is sworn in as President, John Adams does the unthinkable… John Adams filled all open positions with Federalist Judges! John Adams filled all open positions with Federalist Judges! Why would he do this??? Why would he do this???
The Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase
JEFFERSON WANTS NEW ORLEANS JEFFERSON SENDS JAMES MONROE & ROBERT LIVINGSTON TO PARIS. JEFFERSON SENDS JAMES MONROE & ROBERT LIVINGSTON TO PARIS. THEY ARE TO BUY NEW ORLEANS- CAN PAY AS MUCH AS $10 MILLION THEY ARE TO BUY NEW ORLEANS- CAN PAY AS MUCH AS $10 MILLION
Louisiana Purchase Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to Give the United States control over the Mississippi River Give the United States control over the Mississippi River Acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops Acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops Hoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian) society by making abundant lands available to future generations Hoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian) society by making abundant lands available to future generations To prevent war with France over control of the Louisiana Territory and secure American commerce To prevent war with France over control of the Louisiana Territory and secure American commerce
Louisiana Purchase April 30, 1803 April 30, 1803 Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris The United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acre The United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acre The purchase doubled the size of the United States The purchase doubled the size of the United States On July 4 th the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced On July 4 th the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced Original treaty can be found at: als_iv/sections/louisiana_purchase_treaty.html
Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803 January 18, 1803 Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of the Mississippi Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of the Mississippi His goal is to find a water route to the Pacific His goal is to find a water route to the Pacific May 1804 May 1804 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expedition Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expedition Map of Lewis and Clark’s Route Original map can be found at:
But wait a minute… JEFFERSON IS A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST. JEFFERSON IS A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST. What’s wrong with this picture? What’s wrong with this picture? He must use “implied powers” to justify the deal He must use “implied powers” to justify the deal FEDERALISTS ATTACK JEFFERSON FOR STRETCHING THE CONSTITUTION. FEDERALISTS ATTACK JEFFERSON FOR STRETCHING THE CONSTITUTION.
Evaluating Jefferson Positives Expands the size of the United States. “Louisiana Purchase” Expands the size of the United States. “Louisiana Purchase” Negatives Contradicts his own interpretation of the Constitution. ~ Why?