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World War I: Causes, Controversies and Consequences

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1 World War I: Causes, Controversies and Consequences
The Great War Michael Quiñones, NBCT

2 Macro Concepts Conflict-problem or troubling issue that can cause problems without compromise. Power-the authority to control citizens by using regulations and laws. Leadership-the method of setting examples positive or negative for others to follow. Idealism-a way of thinking that stresses optimism and positive thinking. Micro Concepts Militarism-a focus on heavy build up and use of military equipment. Alliances-the cooperation and organization of nations into teams. Imperialism-the act of stronger nations taking over weaker nations. Nationalism-an extreme and sometimes dangerous devotion to a nation/country.   Trade-the act of buying and selling goods between nations.   Isolationism-the act of staying away from alliances and foreign nations. Mobilization-the act of coming together to gather war supplies to win a war.

3 Key Vocabulary Nationalism Propaganda Militarism Causes of WWI
Triple Alliance Triple Entente Isolationism Modern war techniques Treaty of Paris (Versailles) Sussex Pledge Idealism Pacifism Bolshevik Revolution Wilson’s 14 Points Reservationists League of Nations

4 Militarism [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Key incident #1 that provoked the United States-________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Imperialism/Isolationism [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Who were the “good guys” and why?_______________ _____________________________________________________________________ Who were the “bad guys” and why?________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Causes of World War I M.A.I.N. Alliances [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Nationalism [Provide an explanation in your own words for what the above term means and how it may have led to WWI] Key incident #2 that provoked the United States-______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4

5 Militarism Two principal reasons for the rise of militarism:
(1) Desire to be powerful in order to take over other countries. (2) Desire to defend themselves from powerful countries.

6 Alliances Archduke Franz Ferdinand
An alliance is essentially a group of countries that pledges (promises) to offer protection and support each other in case of military attack by another foreign country or alliance. Benefits: Members of alliances are not on their own. Detriments: Members of alliances are obligated to defend all members even if they disagree or had no role antagonizing a war. Example of Pre-World War I Alliance was the Central Powers of Europe: Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Goal: Protect members of their alliance. To dominate Europe and control it. Archduke Franz Ferdinand German Chancellor Bismarck [Led Germany until 1890]

7 Alliances Triple Entente: Russia, France and England. Goal: protect themselves from the Triple alliance.

8 Isolationism: American Involvement
France got their butts kicked by Germany and needed help. The United States wanted to remain neutral and isolate [isolationism] itself from the rest of the world. The United States came to their aid and joined their alliance in 1917. American firepower and industrial power was the key the Triple Entente’s victory.

9 Nationalism Extreme feelings of pride for a country.
What can this lead to? Feeling jealous, envious, suspicious, fearful or hateful toward another country. These “feelings” can be exploited by a government’s leadership.

10 Some causes of WWI In June of 1914 The Archduke of Autria-Hungary was assassinated by a “crazy” person who did not like him. Germany, his country’s ally, believed its enemies were behind his murder and started to get its troops ready to attack countries such as France and England.

11 Sinking of RMS Lusitania
In May of 1915 a passenger cruise ship, RMS Lusitania, was sunk by a German U-Boat [submarine] off the coast of Ireland killing nearly 2,000 people including almost 200 Americans. This aggression caused the Americans to be even angrier at Germany and made them confident they made the correct decision to fight them and eventually win.

12 Taking Sides Europe had a “trouble maker ” from the 1850s-1914.
Who was it? Many people believed that to be Germany because of its imperialist tendencies. The Kaiser [German monarch] wanted more land and power.

13 Weapons of War Many new weapons were invented for use during the Great War. Such as? Machine guns, warplanes, land mines, tanks, chemical gas and gas masks. Purpose? To kill or injure as many people as possible.

14 Weapons of War Tanks- Soldiers were able to travel on the battlefield quickly with protection and heavy firepower. Landmines- Soldiers were able to place explosive devices beneath the ground in order to injure, maim or kill without great risk to themselves. Mines activated by weight pressure of person walking on top of mine. Exception: Landmines would sometimes malfunction and kill the person placing it.

15 Striving to be the best The principal goal of war is to destroy the enemy. Two basic goals during war. Attacking (offense) or defending against attack (defense). Tactic used both on offense and defense were trenches.

16 No Man’s Land The most dangerous area on the World War I battlefield was No Man’s Land. The area between enemy trenches exposed troops to enemy fire and land mines. Stalemates were often ended when troops entered No Man’s Land.

17 How can a government convince its people to think or feel a certain way?
Using propaganda. What is that? Speeches, books, posters or images used to influence someone. Sometimes they are meant to scare, warn, help or encourage people.

18 The Zimmerman Note [telegram]
The foreign secretary of Germany, Arthur Zimmerman, in January of 1917 sent a telegram [old version of a text message] to the president of Mexico in “code” asking him to attack the U.S. in exchange for return of territories [Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona]. The telegram was intercepted and angered the U.S. to the point of joining the allies against Germany.

19 What are these things and how and why were they used during World War I?

20 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
To attempt to control Germany’s up and coming powerful navy the British decided to blockade German ports. Every ship German or not was stopped by England and inspected for contraband [illegal cargo including military weapons]. Germany responded by declaring it would sink any ship around English waters using U-boats [submarines]. Germany sank many ships including the Lusitania in 1915.

21 The Idealism of Wilson President Wilson for several years attempted to keep the U.S. neutral and isolated from European conflict. He hoped his idealism could be viewed as constructive to world peace. However, after German aggression via unrestricted U-boat submarine warfare and plotting with Mexico to invade the U.S. he had no choice but to enter WWI. Wilson promised to break off connections with Germany if they continued unrestricted submarine warfare. Germany got nervous and promised to end its bombing called the Sussex Pledge. To supply military personnel the U.S. Congress passed the Selective Service Act in 1917 requiring men to register for the draft. A random lottery would determine who was called to serve first.

22 President Wilson’s 14 Points
Towards the very end of World War I President Woodrow Wilson gave a speech to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The purpose of the speech was to assure the United States that America’s purpose in the war and its aftermath was just. Wilson laid out 14 main points but perhaps the most important were points 1-5 and 14. [1] There should be an end to all secret diplomacy amongst countries. [2] Freedom of the seas in peace and war [3] The reduction of trade barriers among nations [4] The general reduction of armaments [5] The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers [14] A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike."

23 Election of 1916 Because of the power of Big Business and his crusade against them Wilson almost lost his re-election bid in 1916. However, because many citizens did not want to change president during the war Wilson won the election by less that 500,000 votes. Democrat Woodrow Wilson Republican Charles Evan Hughes

24 Isolationism and Pacifism
Isolationism was rejected by most Americans after Americans died aboard the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram was made public. The first woman elected to the U.S. Congress Jeanette Rankin to represent a district in Montana. She voted against a declaration of war against Germany and she was ruined publicly. She voted for a draft to get Americans to think about the consequences of a world war.

25 WWI U.S. Soldiers: Doughboys
Millions of American men were drafted or volunteered for service in World War I. Almost 400,000 African-American men were drafted as well but they were unfortunately placed into segregated units with only white commanders. American soldiers who fought fiercely and victoriously came to be known as doughboys. The origin of the name is unclear but many people believe it either came from the chalky white dust that covered uniforms during the Mexican-American War or from the types of food they cooked in the field which was usually biscuits and rice.

26 General John J. Pershing Commander of the American Expeditionary Force
General John J. Pershing, also known as Black jack had been well known for his pursuit of Mexican rebel leader Pancho Villa in 1911. General Pershing was assigned by President Wilson to lead the American Expeditionary Force [U.S. armed forces army and marines] against the Central Powers in Europe. Pershing was well known for his refusal to allow U.S. troops to be integrated [mixed into] into British and French forces. He believed U.S. forces should be lead by U.S. commanders. Wilson supported his decision.

27 The Peace at Paris The Allied Powers [led by the U.S.] defeated the Central Powers by 1918. The Germans were forced to surrender. Everyone involved in the war met at Versailles to negotiate a treaty. Forced to pay reparations [pay damages]. Forced to sign a guilt clause [take blame for starting the war] on the treaty. Forbidden to possess a military The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty because it would limit its exclusive power to declare war.

28 The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917
During WWI Russia had been part of the Triple Entente [later the Allied Powers. The Russian Tsar [King] had not handled Russia's involvement very well and many Russian citizens suffered food and fuel shortages. Many Russian citizens were furious with the Russian royal family. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated [gave up] his throne in 1917. The Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the temporary Russian government that was set up after the Tsar abdicated. Bolsheviks withdrew from the Allied Powers to focus on creating a strong communist party and made Germany’s task to win the war easier.

29 The League of Nations President Wilson’s 14th Point wanted to create a League of Nations. The League of Nations was intended to act as a world wide alliance to prevent future wars. However, members of the U.S. Senate who were known as Reservationists because they had reservations [doubts] about the League refused to allow the treaty to be ratified. According to the Senator Henry Cabot Lodge [leader of the reservationists] only Congress had the power to declare war and this treaty would give foreign nations power to bring the U.S. into future wars.

30 Sources

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