3Woodrow Wilson President of the USA (1913-1921) Opposed imperialism Declared the U.S. neutral at the outbreak of WWIPresident when the US declared war on Germany and the Central Powers in April, 1917Unrestricted submarine warfareZimmemann Message
4Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) German Kaiser Wilhelm was an overtly militaristic manSought to strengthen Germany's armed forces. Wanted to develop a German navy the equal of Britain's Royal Navy
5Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throneVisited the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo in late June 1914A Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip rushed his car and shot Franz Ferdinand and his wife to death.Following his assassination, the Austro-Hungarian government decides to crush Serbia in order to prevent Slavic nationalism from undermining its empire.
6Arthur ZimmermanA German official who sent a note to the German ambassador in Mexico in January, 1917 known as the Zimmermann telegram.Instructed him to make an offer to the Mexican government:Mexico should ally itself with Germany in the event of war between Germany and the USAIn return, Mexico would regain its “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona” after the warThe note made Americans angry and convinced many to enter World War I on the side of the Allies
7LusitaniaA British liner, one of the world’s largest passenger ships, sunk without warning in May, 1915 by German. U-boats (submarine)Killed 1,198 people (including 128 Americans).
8Pancho Villa and the Mexican Revolution In April 1914, President Wilson ordered US troops to seize the Mexican port of Veracruz to help Venustiano Carranza overthrow the government of Victoriano Huerta.Huerta had overthrown the democratically elected president of Mexico led by Francisco Madero and killed him.Wilson was outraged and refused to recognize the Huerta’s government.Wilson used the invasion as a pretext to help Carranza seize power and prevent Mexican nationalists like Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata from seizing power.
9Pancho Villa and the Mexican Revolution Feeling betrayed, Pancho Villa led a group of Mexican guerrillas in an attack on the small town of Columbus, New Mexico in 1916.Villa’s force burned the town and killed several AmericansWilson responded by sending 6,000 U.S. troops led by General John J. Pershing into Mexico to capture VillaPershing did not succeed and was later recalled and sent to Europe when the US entered WWI
10Czar Nicholas II Leader and last Czar of the Russian empire Ascended to the throne in 1894In March, 1917, after three long years of war and scarcity of food and fuel, Russians rebelled against Czar Nicholas II.He abdicated the throne in February, 1917He was executed by the Bolsheviks in July 1918
11Vladimir LeninLeader of the Bolshevik Party, a group of Communists in Russia.Helped organize the overthrow of the Russian government in November, 1917.After taking power, he agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany on March 3rd, 1918.Withdrew Russia from WWIRussia ceded the Ukraine, its Polish and Baltic territories, and Finland to Germany
12John J. Pershing Commander of the American forces in World War I. Led American forces at the Battle of the Argonne Forest
13Battle of the Argonne Forest Turning Point of WWIBegan on September 26th, 1918Led by U.S. General John J. PershingInvolved 600,000 American troopsAmericans suffer heavy losses, but shatter the German defensesGermany later surrendered on November 11th, 1918Armistice: cease-fire