5What is the Cold War?The two superpowers, the USA and USSR were suspicious and afraid of each other.Both of the superpowers realize the amount of nuclear weapons each posses and want to avoid war.The Americans opposed the idea of communism which leads them to quarrel and make threatsTherefore they lived in a state of uneasy peace.
6MARCH 5, 1946Former British P.M. Winston Churchill speaking at an American University warns that the nations of Central and Eastern Europe are being locked behind an “IRON CURTAIN”.
8ARMS RACEEach side, through fear of the other built up and developed weapons in an effort to gain superiority.
9DEFENCE SYSTEMSIn an attempt to reduce the possibility of a surprise attack defense systems were created. (i.e. NORAD)North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)is a joint organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning and control for North America. Founded in May of1953 as the North American Air Defense Command.
10SPACE RACE ESPIONAGE Military control in space. An information war is fought on both sides to gain secret information through spies.
11ALLIANCES Alliances are made with other countries. NATO (1949) USACanadaWestern EuropeWarsaw Pact (1955)USSREastern EuropeNATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
12FINANCIAL AIDSupport of other countries was bought in the form of money or military equipment.Marshall Plan (1948)Economic aid given to Western European nations by the USA.COMECON (1949)Economic aid given to Eastern European nations by the USSR.
13TRUMAN DOCTRINE (containment) New American foreign policy (1947)Keep the USSR contained and to stop the spread of communism.Marshall PlanNATOEtc.
14How did the Cold War Develop? Although the USA and USSR fought together against Germany in WWII, they were still suspicious of each others actions.Between 1944 – 1947 the USSR took control of several countries in Eastern Europe (iron curtain) including:BulgariaRomaniaPolandCzechoslovakiaEastern part of Germany
15Berlin Blockade (1948)As Determined at the Yalta Conference, Germany and Berlin were divided into 4 zones (despite Berlin being located in the USSR zone).Each zone was controlled by one of the Allies:USAGreat BritainFranceUSSR
16The Division of Germany 1949 the Western powers (USA, GB, France) joined their zones together to form the Federal German Republic. (West Germany)Russians responded by turning their zone into the German Democratic Republic. (East Germany)West Germany prospered under the Marshall Plan.
17Berlin Blockade (1948)Stalin was convinced this was a capitalist plot to eventually reunite Germany. In 1948 the USSR blocked all land routes into the western sector of Berlin.The Soviet’s aim was to prevent the west from sending supplies to West Berlin causing West Berlin to fall under Soviet control.
18BERLIN AIRLIFT Allies did not want to use force USA, Great Britain, & France fly into West Berlin and drop supplies from airplanes.13, 000 tonnes / dayOne plane every 3 minutesAirlift lasts one yearStalin couldn’t shoot planes down and reopens Berlin to the Allies.USSR needed atomic bomb to stand up to US.
19Consequences of Blockade To the Allies the blockade was proof of USSR intention to take over Western Europe.Allies create NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)Stalin sees NATO as threat and creates Warsaw Pact (1955)
20The WallMany people living in East Germany were not as well off as West Germans and escaped into West Germany.By July, 1961 approximately East Germans were leaving per week.people had fled since 1945.
21The Wall cont….Not only embarrassing for the government of East Germany but damaging economically because many of the refugees were skilled workers.In August of 1961 the East German government constructs a wall to stop people from leaving East Germany.
23The United NationsCountries pledge through signing a charter to maintain international peace and security.
24“The Four Policeman”At Dumbarton Oaks in Washington D.C. (September, 1945) the United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union and China agreed to manage global affairs (global collective security).
25“The Big Five”Original proposal presented to other nations in April, 1945 in San Francisco by the “Big Five”.USAGreat BritainSoviet UnionChinaFranceNations signed the charter in June, 1945.Formally the U.N. came into existence October, (51 nations now 185)Headquarters in New York.
26The U.N. Charter Independent of peace treaties. The principle organs of the United Nations are the Security Council and the General Assembly.The Security Council functions continuously and it’s chief purpose is international security.The Security Council is composed of five permanent members and ten temporary members.Only 7 of the 11 members of the Security council must vote in favour of procedural changes, and the same majority is required on all other questions provided that it includes the vote of all permanent members.The General Assembly is similarly organized.On important questions the General Assembly requires a 2/3 majority vote; while on other questions a simple majority of those present is adequate.Amendment to Charter require adoption of 2/3 of General Assembly and ratification by permanent members.The Security Council is authorized specifically to employ land, sea, and air forces supplied by members to suppress aggressors.Trusteeship system to supervise backward nations.Charter went into effect October, 1945.
27Goals of the CharterTo keep world peace and prevent the outbreak of war.To help advance justice and law throughout the world.To defend human rights and help promote equality among different individuals and groups around the globe.To encourage friendly relations among nations.
28General Assembly Consists of all members (185) Each member has one vote.Meets regularly once a year.Elects a president each sessionDiscussion of global mattersMakes recommendations on resolutions.2/3 majority on important issues/ simple majority on others
29Security Council 15 members with one vote each 5 permanent members (China, USSR, USA, France, Britain)Each permanent member has veto power over Security Council actions. (unanimous)Call on armed forces, assistance and facilities of member nations.
30International Court of Justice Created to settle legal disputes between countriesLocated in the Hague, Netherlands15 independent judgesJudges elected by Security Council & General Assembly for 9 year terms
31SecretariatSecretary General (Chief Administrative Officer) [Ban Ki-moon of South Korea)Sets budgets$ comes from member states based on countries national income range 25% to 0.01%
32Trusteeship Council To oversee areas/states not yet independent All original “trust territories” had become independent by 1994Meets rarely
33ECOSCO Economic and Social Council Carry out functions of international economic, social, cultural, educational. Health and other related matters.54 member states elected by 2/3 majority for 3 year term
34Specialized Agencies FAO (Food & Agriculture organization) UNICEF (Children’s Fund)WHO (World Health Organization)IMF (International Monetary Fund)WTO (World Trade Organization)
35THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE COLD WAR “We have our last chance. If we do not devise some greater and more equitable system, Armageddon will be at our door.”- General Douglas MacArthur (1945)
36The United Nations and the Cold War The United Nations was caught between two opposing blocs.The Security Council became an arena which the two blocs competed for influence and undermined each other.To protect their interests, the Soviets began to use their veto regularly.This paralyzed it from making decisions or taking effective action in times of crisis.
37The Changing Face of the U.N. By the mid 1950’s the UN changed from a body dominated by European and American members to an organization representing more than 160 diverse countries many of them developing nations.In spite of its cultural biases, the UN has developed an important moral and humanitarian leadership role in the world. (i.e. FAO,WHO,UNICEF)
38The Role of the UN in Peacemaking and Peacekeeping In the 1950’s two crisis emerged to threaten the world’s security…Korean War (peacemaker)Suez Crisis (peacekeeper)Peacemaking occurs when an outside force intervenes in order to stop a conflict.Peacekeeping occurs when both sides agree to stop fighting and accept a token force to monitor the ceasefire.