Presentation on theme: "Thursday 4/18/13 RAP What was the alliance between western European countries called? What did the Soviet Union start up in response? What was the Marshall."— Presentation transcript:
Thursday 4/18/13 RAP What was the alliance between western European countries called? What did the Soviet Union start up in response? What was the Marshall Plan? What did the Soviets start in response? What did the East German government build, with the backing of the Soviet Union, in Berlin, on August of 1961? Today: Review 21.1 Power point on Ch. 21.2 Video of Cuban Missile Crisis and Berlin Tunnels --
Cold War Vocabulary 21.1: pages 640-647 Iron Curtain The Soviet made divider that split Europe into non-Communist Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe. Not a real curtain!! From the Baltic sea to the Adriatic sea.
Containment Stopping the spread of communism. Standing firm to keeping communism in its current borders. Did not work—China fell, Vietnam, Cuba, etc.
VOCABULARY CONTINUED SATELLITES By 1947 most countries in Eastern Europe — Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and Yugoslavia became controlled by the Soviets. Yugoslavia became the only large communist state in Eastern Europe to resist the Soviet Union.
Arms race Competition between the superpowers to have the stronger armed forces and weapons system. By 1949, Soviets exploded their first atomic bomb. Ideologies Superpowers also began competing with ideologies—political and economic philosophies. CAPITALISM V. COMMUNISM Blocs By the 1970s the division of the world into two competing groups of nations was coming to an end.
UNITED NATIONS Purpose To maintain peace by guaranteeing the security of member nations. Foster good relations among nations based on the principles of equal rights and self-determination. Also, encourage cooperation on economic, cultural, and humanitarian problems. April 1945, representatives from 50 nations met in San Francisco to draft the Charter of the United Nations. U.N. headquartered in NYC held its first session held in 1946. Five permanent members—Great Britain, China, France, the U.S., and the Soviet Union. Right to veto any Security Council decision The General Assembly is made up of all nations with one vote each.
CONTAINMENT Truman Doctrine 1947- Truman used the containment policy for the first time. Greece was fighting a civil war– between communist and the monarchy. The West feared it would fall to communism. Truman asked Congress to approve $400 million dollars to aid Turkey and Greece to stop communism from spreading. Congress approved the money for military and economic aid.
CONTAINMENT Marshall Plan 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed an aid program to restore the confidence of European people in the economic future of their own countries. Any European country could borrow from the U.S., but had to buy from the U.S. In response, the USSR set up a rival plan– Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, or COMECON.
Berlin Blockade Western Allies wanted to join their zones in Germany with the Marshall Plan. June 1948, the Soviets tried to block this merger by blockading Berlin. U.S. and Great Britain decided to use airlifts to get their supplies into the western zones. Continued for 11 months. The success finally forced the Soviets to lift the blockade. Western nations decided to form an independent West Germany. By the fall of 1949, Germany was divided into two separate countries.
NATO and Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization April 1949, the U.S., Canada, and 10 European countries signed a military alliance agreeing to attack any one who attacked the other. Greece and Turkey were included in 1952 and West Germany in 1955. In response to NATO, the Soviet Union and its eastern alliances signed a military agreement known as the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
STRUGGLE WORLD WIDE ARMS RACE COMMUNISM V. CAPITALISM SPACE RACE 1961- EAST GERMANY BUILT A WALL SEPARATING EAST BERLIN FROM WEST BERLIN. TUNNELS WERE USED TO SNEAK PEOPLE OUT OF EAST BERLIN. PEOPLE HID PEOPLE IN CARS. WALL CAME DOWN IN NOVEMBER OF 1989.
Developing World After 1960s, superpower competition directly affected developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Trying to keep capitalism or communism from becoming prominent. By late 1970- blocs or groups of nations headed by a superpower were coming to an end. Small nations were aligning with neither. World starting to move away from superpowers--- 1980s. Berlin wall comes down in Nov. 1989. Many communist bloc countries start to revolt. 1989 October 3, 1990 East and West Germany joined to become one nation.East and West Germany joined The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was formally dissolved on December 25, 1991.Union of Soviet Socialist Republics