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U.S. Involvement in World War I “The Great War” 1914-1918.

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1 U.S. Involvement in World War I “The Great War”

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3 I. The Roots of War A. Tensions grew between European powers in the 1800s and 1900s because of … 1. Nationalism – deep devotion to one’s country a. rivalry between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy and France b. led to a desire for independence among various ethnic groups.

4 I. The Roots of War – continued 2. Imperialism – competition for colonies in Africa and Asia led to rivalry and distrust among the European powers 3. Militarism – “the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war” = an arms race between the European powers

5 RIVALRIES OVER COLONIES LED TO BITTERNESS IN EUROPE

6 ARMS RACE  EACH COUNTRY IN EUROPE HAD A DESIRE TO BETTER ITS ARMY AND NAVY.  GREAT BRITAIN TRADITIONALLY HAD THE MOST POWERFUL NAVY IN EUROPE. GERMANY BEGAN TO EXPAND HER NAVY, WHICH CREATED TENSION BETWEEN THE TWO NATIONS.  FRANCE LOST THE ALSACE-LORRAINE REGION TO GERMANY IN THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR OF THIS LEFT BITTERNESS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES AND A DETERMINATION BY FRANCE TO HAVE HER ARMY READY TO TAKE BACK THE TERRITORY FROM GERMANY.

7 I. The Roots of War - cont. 4. Entangled Alliances - Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (Germany’s ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm II, said he wanted to show how mighty Germany had become) - Triple Entente = Britain, France, and Russia

8 INTRICATE AND SOMETIMES SECRET ALLIANCES IN EUROPE LED TO OBLIGATIONS BUT ALSO DIVIDED LOYALTIES IF ATTACKED AUSTRIA- HUNGARY HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GERMANY WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH ITALY. OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS ALLIED WITH GERMANY AGAINST RUSSIA. SERBIA HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH RUSSIA WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH FRANCE WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GREAT BRITAIN WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT PROTECT BELGIUM’S NEUTRALITY

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10 Kaiser Wilhelm II

11 I. The Roots of War –cont. B. Crisis in the Balkans 1. Ethnic rivalries dominated this region known as the “Powder Keg of Europe” 2. Europe’s leading powers along with Russia all had interests here! 3. New nations were formed: - Serbia – created by Slavs (most Russians were Slavic) - Serbia – created by Slavs (most Russians were Slavic) - Bosnia – taken over by Austria- Hungary (area where many Slavs lived) - Bosnia – taken over by Austria- Hungary (area where many Slavs lived)

12 II. WWI Begins A. Assassination of the Archduke 1. June 28, 1914 – the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia were assassinated in Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia) by a Serbian terrorist

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14 ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND AND FAMILY THE HEIR TO THE AUSTR0-HUNGARIAN THRONE WAS ASSASSINATED WHILE TOURING THROUGH SERBIA BY GAVRILO PRINCIP, A MEMBER OF AN ORGANIZATION CALLED BLACK HAND, WHO WANTED INDEPENDENCE FOR THE REGION FROM AUSTRIA- HUNGARY. THIS ASSASSINATION HELPED LEAD TO THE WAR AS COUNTRIES RUSHED TO AVENGE THE MURDER AND FULFILL THEIR ALLIANCE OBLIGATIONS.

15 II. WWI Begins - continued B. Austria declares war 1. July 28, 1914 – Austria declares war on Serbia (believing this would be a short war) short war) - Germany supports Austria’s decision - Russia mobilizes to support Serbia * Alliances agree to support each other *

16 II. WWI Begins -continued C. Chain Reaction 1. Germany feels “obligated” to support Austria-Hungary and declares war Austria-Hungary and declares war on Russia on August 1, 1914 on Russia on August 1, August 3, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia’s ally, France 3. Germany now fighting a Two Front War

17 III. The Fighting Starts A. The Schlieffen Plan- Germany’s plan to attack France first and then Russia 1. Germany moves through Belgium (a neutral country) to get to France 2. Britain is outraged at the violation of neutrality and declares war on Germany on August 4, Italy breaks their alliance with Germany by mid-August because of this violation.

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20 III. Fighting Starts – cont. B. Trench Warfare: - (After both sides failed to outflank each other’s armies, both sides dug in for a long siege.) - By the Spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep, rat infested trenches crossed France. - trenches were very close together and the space in between, “no man’s land”, was filled with bombs and barbed wire

21 . During the First Battle of the Somme – which began July 1, 1916 and lasted until mid-November 1916 – the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground changed hands. This bloody trench warfare continued for over 3 years.

22 TRENCH WARFARE Trench warfare was the dominant style of fighting. Troops would dig ft. deep trenches for protection against enemy machine gun fire. The space between two trenches was called “no man’s land.” To break an enemy’s line artillery would bomb the area, then the men would run across no man’s land until they could throw grenades into the enemy’s trench. **Reading “A Wet Little Home”.

23 TRENCH WARFARE

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28 AERIAL VIEW OF THE TRENCHES

29 III. Fighting Starts - continued C. European Nations Take Sides 1. Central Powers = Germany, Austria- Hungary 2. Allied Powers = Britain, France, and Russia – later Japan and Italy join 3. Millions of soldiers march off to war convinced that the war would be short

30 THE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONS CENTRAL POWERS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY GERMANY BULGARIA TURKEY ALLIES FRANCE UNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES) ITALY RUSSIA JAPAN ROMANIA SERBIA GREECE PORTUGAL NEUTRAL NATIONS SPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARK

31 IV. Americans Question Neutrality A. The United States remains neutral: 1. August 19,1914 – President Wilson declares U.S. neutrality 2. Most Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away that join a struggle 3,000 miles away that did not threaten U.S. lives or property. did not threaten U.S. lives or property. 3. Other Americans wanted to join the war because of loyalty to their homelands and to past allies. war because of loyalty to their homelands and to past allies.

32 President Woodrow Wilson

33 “Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned….It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy and desire among you with regard to the issues and circumstances of the conflict. The United States must be impartial in thought as well as in action.” President Woodrow Wilson

34 IV. Americans Question Neutrality B. Divided Loyalties - Socialists criticized the war as a capitalist and imperialist struggle between Germany and England for markets - Pacifists, believed war was evil and that the U.S. should set an example of peace. - Many simply didn’t want their sons to experience war.

35 B. Divided Loyalties – continued - Many Americans felt close to Britain because of common ancestry, language and democratic systems. - Germany’s aggression increased U.S. sympathy for the allies. sympathy for the allies. - America’s economic ties with the allies was stronger (during the first 2 years of the war, the U.S. shipped millions of dollars of war supplies to the Allies and orders kept coming!!!!)

36 POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP IN MILLIONS TOTAL U.S. POPULATION 1910: 91,972,266 U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282

37 WHAT EXPLAINS THE ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT IN THE U.S. GIVEN THAT GERMANS COMPRISED THE SINGLE LARGEST FOREIGN-BORN GROUP? CLASHING WITH THE GERMANS IN SAMOA AND AT MANILA BAY OVER EXPANSION OF U.S. TERRITORIES IN THE LATE 19 TH CENTURY COMPETITION OVER TRADING IN CHINA, EAST INDIES, THE PACIFIC, AND AFRICA GERMAN DOMINANCE OF NAVAL AND ARMY POWER OVER THE U.S. GERMANY INVADED NEUTRAL BELGIUM BRITISH PROPAGANDA DEMONIZING THE GERMANS

38 V. The War Hits Home A. The British Blockade - Britain blockaded the German coast to stop supplies, including food. to stop supplies, including food. - Result = U.S. angry b/c the blockade threatened freedom of the seas and Germany experienced famine (750,000 Germans died of starvation by 1917)

39 V. The War Hits Home – cont. B. German U-Boat Response - Germany responded with a counterblockade by U-boats = any allied ships in the waters around Britain would be sunk.

40 NOTICE! Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, AD PLACED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, 1915

41 LUSITANIA SUNK, 1915 BRITISH PASSENGER SHIP SUNK BY A GERMAN U-BOAT IN MORE THAN 1,000 PEOPLE KILLED INCLUDING 128 AMERICANS.

42 V. War Hits Home – cont. C. Sinking of the Lusitania - May 7, 1915 – a U-boat sank the British liner the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. - 1,198 people died, 128 were Americans Americans (Germany defended their actions on the grounds that the liner carried ammunition but Americans were still outraged)

43 The Lusitania

44 V. War Hits Home – cont. C. Sinking of the Lusitania – cont. - August 1915 – a U-boat sinks another liner, killing 2 Americans - Americans protest and Germany agrees not to sink any more passenger ships. - March 1916 – U-boat torpedoed an unarmed French passenger ship, killing 80 people, including some Americans. - Wilson still avoided war and was re-elected in 1916 using the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War”!

45 THE ELECTION OF 1916 WILSON RAN ON THE SLOGAN “HE KEPT US OUT OF WAR!” HOWEVER HE KNEW THAT THE U.S. WAS GETTING CLOSER TO ENTERING THE WAR DEMOCRAT PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON REPUBLICAN SUPREME COURT JUSTICE CHARLES EVANS HUGHES HUGHES CHALLENGED WILSON’S UNWILLINGNESS TO STAND UP TO THE GERMANS

46 THE ELECTION WAS SO CLOSE THAT THE RESULT WAS NOT KNOWN FOR SEVERAL DAYS WHILE CALIFORNIA’S VOTES WERE TALLIED. WILSON’S LEAD IN CALIFORNIA WAS ONLY BY 3800 VOTES. WILSON WON WITH 9,129,606 TO HUGHES’ 8,538,221.

47 VI. The U.S. Declares War A. January 1917 Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare – promising to sink all ships in British waters- hostile or neutral. - U.S. now knows war in unavoidable but Wilson decides to wait for “actual overt acts” before declaring war.

48 VI. U.S. Declares War – cont. B. The Zimmerman Telegram – Feb Telegram sent from the German foreign minister, Arthur von Zimmerman to the German ambassador in Mexico 2. Intercepted by British intelligence 3. Telegram proposed: - that Mexico ally itself with Germany - if war broke out w/ the U.S., Germany would help Mexico recover “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”

49 ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917) On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916

50 GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR. WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST. FEBRUARY 1, 1917

51 VI. U.S. Declares War – cont. C. America Acts! - April 6, 1917 the U.S. declares war on Germany. - Wilson said that the U.S. must make the world “safe for democracy”

52 WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 “THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.”

53 CONGRESS DECLARED WAR APRIL 6, 1917 “Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America; Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.” EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION

54 VII. America Mobilizes A. Raising an Army: 1. U.S. was not prepared to fight – only 200,000 men were in service. 2. Selective Service Act—authorized a draft of young men for military service. - Act required men to register with the gov. to be randomly selected for service. - By 1918 – 24 million men had registered. - Nearly 3 millions were called up! DIVISIONS SENT TO FRANCE - 2,084,000 MEN

55 VII. America Mobilizes A. Raising an Army - continued 4. Avoiding the Draft - The government did exempt some shipyard workers from the draft because their work was valuable to the war effort. - Some Americans sought exemption from the war as a conscientious objector – someone who opposes war on moral grounds. * About 3,500 men obtained legal conscientious objector exemptions. * Some simply refused to cooperate with the military and 500 objectors were court-martialed and imprisoned.

56 REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF (LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE DRAFT ABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL POPULATION ABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES, CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917

57 SECRETARY OF WAR BAKER PULLED DRAFT NUMBERS IN THE LOTTERY

58 SOLDIERS LEFT FOR FRANCE

59 ♫ OVER THERE Over There Johnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, On the run, on the run. Hear them calling, you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, No delay, go today, Make your daddy glad To have had such a lad. Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line. (chorus sung twice) Johnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun Who's a son of a gun. Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, Show your grit, do your bit. Yankee to the ranks, From the towns and the tanks. Make your mother proud of you, And the old Red, White and Blue. (chorus sung twice) Chorus Over there, over there, Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming, The Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming Ev'rywhere. So prepare, say a pray'r, Send the word, send the word to beware. We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over Over there.

60 VII. America Mobilizes – cont. B. Convoy System - U.S. needed to get troops, ships, supplies, etc., to Europe but knew they faced the U-boats. - American Vice Admiral William S. Sims suggested the convoy system = heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth. - “Only” 637 Americans were lost to U- boats during the war.

61 VIII. Fighting in the War A.American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was led by General John J. Pershing: - American infantry were nicknamed “doughboys” because of the white belts that they cleaned with pipe clay, or “dough”. - Most soldiers had never been far from home and none were prepared for the horrors of war.

62 GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDER OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN WWI "ALL A SOLDIER NEEDS TO KNOW IS HOW TO SHOOT AND SALUTE."

63 VIII. Fighting in the War – cont. B. New Weapons: - Machine Guns - Poison Gas - Armored tanks - Airplanes - Submarines

64 AIRPLANES ENTERED THE SCENE

65 SUBMARINES, CALLED “U-BOATS” BY THE GERMANS, WERE USED TO SINK SUPPLY SHIPS

66 TECHNOLOGY IMPROVED CANNONS

67 MACHINE GUNS

68 TANKS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED

69 POISONOUS GAS

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71 VIII. Fighting in the War – cont. C. America on the Offensive – Russia pulls out of the war and Germany is close to Paris - Americans arrive and help stop the German advance and send the Germans retreating

72 VIII. Fighting in the War – cont. D. Germany surrenders: - Nov. 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrenders - Same day, German soldiers mutiny - Nov. 9 th new German gov. formed, Kaiser steps down - November 11, 1918 – Germany signs the armistice (an agreement to stop fighting) to end the war!

73 IX. Final Toll Deaths = 22 million (1/2 civilians) Deaths = 22 million (1/2 civilians) U.S. lost 48,000 men in battle, 62,000 died of disease, more than 200,000 woundedU.S. lost 48,000 men in battle, 62,000 died of disease, more than 200,000 wounded Wounded = 20 million Wounded = 20 million Economic Cost = $338 billion Economic Cost = $338 billion

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76 X. The War At Home

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78 A. WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON AND HEADED BY BERNARD BARUCH TO INCREASE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND COORDINATE DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES THE GOVERNMENT TOOK OVER ALL FACTORIES. THE BOARD INSTRUCTED THE FACTORIES ON WHAT TO PRODUCE, HOW MUCH TO PRODUCE, AND THE COST OF THE ITEMS WOMEN'S BLOUSE FACTORIES MADE SIGNAL FLAGS RADIATOR MANUFACTURERS MADE GUNS AUTOMOBILE FACTORIES MADE AIRPLANE ENGINES PIANO COMPANIES MADE AIRPLANE WINGS

79 MANUFACTURING HELMETS AND HATS FOR SOLDIERS

80 WOOL SOCKS FOR SOLDIERS

81 POSTERS DESIGNED TO CONVINCE WORKERS IT WAS THEIR DUTY TO PRODUCE (AND THEREFORE NOT STRIKE)

82 X. War at Home – Cont. B. War Economy - Most wages rose during the war - However, household income was cut because of rising food prices and housing costs - Stockholders saw huge profits - Union membership boomed - National War Labor Board was formed to manage disputes between workers and management.

83 NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD HEADED BY EX-PRESIDENT TAFT WAS FORMED TO UNIFY LABOR POLICIES AND SERVED AS THE COURT FOR LABOR DISPUTES PRESIDENT WILSON HOPED TO PREVENT STRIKES AS THEY COULD STOP PRODUCTION OF MUCH NEEDED GOODS FOR THE WAR DURING THE WAR THERE WERE OVER 6,000 STRIKES, AND THE NWLB HEARD OVER 1,000 CASES THE NWLB ALSO WORKED TO IMPROVE WORKING CONDITIONS: AN EIGHT-HOUR WORKDAY WAS ESTABLISHED IN SOME AREAS, AND STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE ESTABLISHED

84 X. War at Home – cont. C. Food Administration - Wilson set up the Food Administration under Herbert Hoover to convince Americans to conserve food. - Hoover called for people to follow the “gospel of the clean plate” - Called for, “meatless”, “sweetless”, “wheatless”, and “porkless” days.

85 FOOD ADMINISTRATION HEADED BY FUTURE PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER, NEVER IMPOSED SPECIFIC RATIONS BUT RELIED UPON VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION RATION: TO LIMIT THE AMOUNT OF FOOD OR RESOURCES PEOPLE CAN USE FAMOUS SLOGAN “FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR – DON’T WASTE IT” THE U.S. HAD TO PROVIDE FOOD FOR ITS OWN CITIZENS AS WELL AS THE ALLIED COUNTRIES

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89 X. War at Home – Cont. D. Financing the War - U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war - Gov. raised 1/3 through taxes: - increased income tax - taxes on tobacco, liquor, luxury goods - Gov. raised the rest through public borrowing – “Liberty Loan” and “Victory Loan” Bonds and War Stamps.

90 THERE WERE FOUR MAJOR LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES WHICH AMASSED GREAT AMOUNTS OF MONEY FOR THE WAR EFFORT. PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE THE RED CROSS AND THE Y.M.C.A. ALSO HELD FUND RAISING EVENTS. NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA

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92 THE LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES USUALLY INVOLVED A LARGE PARADE THAT WOULD INCLUDE SOLDIERS AND COMMUNITY MEMBERS

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97 KIDS WERE ENCOURAGED TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE LOAN DRIVES AS WELL

98 X. War at Home – Cont. E. Committee on Public Information - to popularize the war, the govt. created the nation’s first propaganda agency, the (CPI) - Head of the CPI was George Creel - CPI’s job was to promote the war effort!

99 COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION : CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON TO SPREAD PRO-WAR PROPAGANDA LED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL

100 WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS

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104 CIVIL LIBERTIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS THAT ARE PROTECTED IN THE BILL OF RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, HOWEVER IN TIMES OF CRISIS THEY HAVE BEEN RESTRICTED BY THE GOVERNMENT IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE LARGER GOALS DURING WORLD WAR ONE, LAWS WERE PASSED THAT SEVERELY RESTRICTED PEOPLE’S RIGHTS WHO SPOKE OUT AGAINST THE WAR EFFORT LED TO 6,000 ARRESTS AND OVER 1900 PROSECUTIONS WERE MADE UNDER THE LAWS CIVIL LIBERTIES RESTRICTED DURING THE WAR

105 X. War at Home –cont. F. Attacks on Civil Liberties - Americans from Germany or Austria- Hungary became targets of discrimination. - June 1917 the government passed the Espionage and Sedition Acts - a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or saying anything disloyal, profane of abusive about the government.

106 EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT DURING WWI MANY AMERICAN SCHOOLS STOPPED OFFERING INSTRUCTION IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. CALIFORNIA'S STATE EDUCATION BOARD CALLED GERMAN A LANGUAGE OF "AUTOCRACY, BRUTALITY, AND HATRED”. SAUERKRAUT BECAME "LIBERTY CABBAGE" SALOONKEEPERS REMOVED PRETZELS FROM THE BAR ORCHESTRAL WORKS BY BACH, BEETHOVEN, AND BRAHMS VANISHED FROM MUSIC PROGRAMS, INCLUDING THAT OF THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC MANY GERMAN AMERICANS WERE BADGERED, BEATEN, AND SOMETIMES KILLED.

107 THE ESPIONAGE ACT OF 1917, LATER AMENDED AND CALLED THE SEDITION ACT OF 1918 SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. HAYWOODDEBSRANDOLPHEASTMANBERGERREED SOME OF THE PEOPLE ARRESTED UNDER THESE LAWS. PLEASE SEE THE SPEAKER NOTES FOR DETAILS.

108 TWO WELL-KNOWN ANARCHISTS, EMMA GOLDMAN AND ALEXANDER BERKMAN CONVICTED OF CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE DRAFT LAW WERE SENTENCED TO TWO YEARS IN A PENITENTIARY AND FINED $10,000 EACH, JULY 9, THEY WERE LATER DEPORTED TO RUSSIA.

109 SCHENCK V. U.S. CHARLES SCHENCK, GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY, OPPOSED TO THE WAR, MAILED 15,000 PAMPHLETS TO RECENT DRAFTEES THAT CLAIMED THAT THE DRAFT WAS A VIOLATION OF THE 13 TH AMENDMENT’S PROHIBITION OF SLAVERY AND TO PETITION FOR REPEAL OF THE DRAFT. HE WAS ARRESTED AND CONVICTED FOR INTERFERING WITH MILITARY RECRUITMENT UNDER THE ESPIONAGE ACT. HE ARGUED THAT HE WAS EXERCISING HIS FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHT TO FREE SPEECH. THE SUPREME COURT UPHELD THE CONVICTION IN 1919 AND JUSTICE HOLMES RULED THAT FREEDOM OF SPEECH COULD BE RESTRICTED WHEN THE WORDS PRESENTED A “CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER”. HE USED THE EXAMPLE OF YELLING “FIRE!” WHEN THERE WAS NONE IN A CROWDED THEATER.

110 X. War at Home – cont. G. Social Change - War prompted the Great Migration, the large-scale movement of Southern blacks to cities in the north because: - escape racial discrimination - declining cotton industry - more job opportunities up North (Racial prejudice against African Americans still existed in the North) - African Americans made a significant contribution to the war effort at home and abroad.

111 AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY

112 ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s. BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE CUTTING DOWN TREES

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114 EACH STAR REPRESENTED A SON FIGHTING IN THE WAR

115 X. War at Home – cont. G. Social Change – cont. - Women entered the work force in large numbers and in jobs never before held by women. (President Wilson acknowledged the contribution of women saying, “The services of women during the supreme crisis have been of the most signal usefulness and distinction; it is high time that part of our debt should be acknowledged.” Their war effort helped spread support for suffrage.)

116 WOMEN TOOK THE JOBS LEFT BEHIND BY THE MEN

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118 NURSES CONTRIBUTED TO THE WAR EFFORT

119 X. War at Home – cont. H. Flu Epidemic - Fall of 1918 a flu epidemic affected ¼ of the U.S. - Economically devastating b/c – businesses shut down. - illness spread rapidly in the army - killed 500,000 Americans before the war was over (30 million worldwide).

120 INFLUENZA, 1918 SOLDIERS NEAR BOSTON SUDDENLY STARTED DYING THE CAUSE OF DEATH WAS IDENTIFIED AS INFLUENZA, BUT IT WAS UNLIKE ANY STRAIN EVER SEEN AS THE KILLER VIRUS SPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOSPITALS OVERFILLED, DEATH CARTS ROAMED THE STREETS AND HELPLESS CITY OFFICIALS DUG MASS GRAVES IT WAS THE WORST EPIDEMIC IN AMERICAN HISTORY, KILLING OVER 600,000, FIVE TIMES THE DEATHS OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE WAR. IT DISAPPEARED AS MYSTERIOUSLY AS IT HAD BEGUN. PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE

121 INFLUENZA DEATHS PER 1,000 PEOPLE COMPARED TO THE NUMBERS OF DEATHS THE PREVIOUS YEAR

122 XI. Peace Talks A. Wilson’s 14 Points, Jan. 18, 1918: 1. No secret treaties between nations 2. Freedom of seas 3. Tariffs should be lowered to foster trade 4. Arms should be reduced 5. Interests of colonial people should be considered. - Points 6-13 dealt with boundary changes based on the principles of self- determination

123 XI. Peace Talks –cont. A. 14 Points –continued: -The 14 th Point called for the creation of an international peacekeeping organization to address diplomatic crises – League of Nations! -The Allies reject Wilson’s 14 points because: - They wanted to punish Germany - They wanted to gain territory

124 XI. Peace Talks – cont. B. Treaty of Versailles: - The “Big Four” meet in Paris to discuss the terms of peace. - Wilson (U.S.), - Georges Clemenceau (France) - David Lloyd George (Great Britain) - Vittorio Orlando (Italy) - delegates from 32 other countries - Russia and Germany not present - Treaty fails to ensure lasting peace!!!!

125 XII. Legacy of the War –Americans eager to return to “normalcy” – Harding –U.S. military and government strengthened –Appalled by the destruction, Americans called WWI, “the war to end all wars.” –However, unresolved issues will soon drag the U.S. into an even wider war!!!!


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