3I. The Roots of WarA. Tensions grew between European powers in the 1800s and 1900s because of …1. Nationalism – deep devotion to one’s countrya. rivalry between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy and Franceb. led to a desire for independence among various ethnic groups.
4I. The Roots of War – continued 2. Imperialism – competition for colonies in Africa and Asia led to rivalry and distrust among the European powers3. Militarism – “the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war” = an arms race between the European powers
5RIVALRIES OVER COLONIES LED TO BITTERNESS IN EUROPE
6ARMS RACEEACH COUNTRY IN EUROPE HAD A DESIRE TO BETTER ITS ARMY AND NAVY.GREAT BRITAIN TRADITIONALLY HAD THE MOST POWERFUL NAVY IN EUROPE. GERMANY BEGAN TO EXPAND HER NAVY, WHICH CREATED TENSION BETWEEN THE TWO NATIONS.FRANCE LOST THE ALSACE-LORRAINE REGION TO GERMANY IN THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR OF THIS LEFT BITTERNESS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES AND A DETERMINATION BY FRANCE TO HAVE HER ARMY READY TO TAKE BACK THE TERRITORY FROM GERMANY.
7I. The Roots of War - cont. 4. Entangled Alliances - Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy(Germany’s ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm II, said he wanted to show how mighty Germany had become)- Triple Entente = Britain, France, and Russia
8INTRICATE AND SOMETIMES SECRET ALLIANCES IN EUROPE LED TO OBLIGATIONS BUT ALSO DIVIDED LOYALTIES IF ATTACKEDAUSTRIA-HUNGARY HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GERMANY WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH ITALY. OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS ALLIED WITH GERMANY AGAINST RUSSIA.SERBIA HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH RUSSIA WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH FRANCE WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GREAT BRITAIN WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT PROTECT BELGIUM’S NEUTRALITY
11I. The Roots of War –cont. B. Crisis in the Balkans 1. Ethnic rivalries dominated this region known as the “Powder Keg of Europe”2. Europe’s leading powers along with Russia all had interests here!3. New nations were formed:- Serbia – created by Slavs (most Russians were Slavic)- Bosnia – taken over by Austria- Hungary (area where many Slavs lived)
12II. WWI Begins A. Assassination of the Archduke 1. June 28, 1914 – the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia were assassinated in Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia) by a Serbian terrorist
14ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND AND FAMILY THE HEIR TO THE AUSTR0-HUNGARIAN THRONE WAS ASSASSINATED WHILE TOURING THROUGH SERBIA BY GAVRILO PRINCIP, A MEMBER OF AN ORGANIZATION CALLED BLACK HAND, WHO WANTED INDEPENDENCE FOR THE REGION FROM AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. THIS ASSASSINATION HELPED LEAD TO THE WAR AS COUNTRIES RUSHED TO AVENGE THE MURDER AND FULFILL THEIR ALLIANCE OBLIGATIONS.
15II. WWI Begins - continued B. Austria declares war1. July 28, 1914 – Austria declares war on Serbia (believing this would be ashort war)- Germany supports Austria’s decision- Russia mobilizes to support Serbia* Alliances agree to support each other *
16II. WWI Begins -continued C. Chain Reaction1. Germany feels “obligated” to supportAustria-Hungary and declares waron Russia on August 1, 19142. August 3, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia’s ally, France3. Germany now fighting a Two Front War
17III. The Fighting Starts A. The Schlieffen Plan - Germany’s plan to attack France first and then Russia 1. Germany moves through Belgium (a neutral country) to get to France 2. Britain is outraged at the violation of neutrality and declares war on Germany on August 4, 19143. Italy breaks their alliance with Germany by mid-August because of this violation.
20III. Fighting Starts – cont. B. Trench Warfare: - (After both sides failed to outflank each other’s armies, both sides dug in for a long siege.) - By the Spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep, rat infested trenches crossed France. - trenches were very close together and the space in between, “no man’s land”, was filled with bombs and barbed wire
21.During the First Battle of the Somme – which began July 1, 1916 and lasted until mid-November 1916 – the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground changed hands. This bloody trench warfare continued for over 3 years.
22TRENCH WARFARETrench warfare was the dominant style of fighting. Troops would dig ft. deep trenches for protection against enemy machine gun fire. The space between two trenches was called “no man’s land.” To break an enemy’s line artillery would bomb the area, then the men would run across no man’s land until they could throw grenades into the enemy’s trench. **Reading “A Wet Little Home”.
29III. Fighting Starts - continued C. European Nations Take Sides1. Central Powers = Germany, Austria- Hungary2. Allied Powers = Britain, France, and Russia – later Japan and Italy join3. Millions of soldiers march off to war convinced that the war would be short
30ALLIESFRANCEUNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES)ITALY RUSSIAJAPAN ROMANIASERBIA GREECEPORTUGALTHE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONSNEUTRAL NATIONSSPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARKCENTRAL POWERSAUSTRIA-HUNGARYGERMANYBULGARIATURKEY
31IV. Americans Question Neutrality A. The United States remains neutral:1. August 19,1914 – President Wilson declares U.S. neutrality2. Most Americans saw no reason tojoin a struggle 3,000 miles away thatdid not threaten U.S. lives or property.3. Other Americans wanted to join thewar because of loyalty to their homelands and to past allies.
33President Woodrow Wilson “Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned….It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy and desire among you with regard to the issues and circumstances of the conflict. The United States must be impartial in thought as well as in action.”President Woodrow Wilson
34IV. Americans Question Neutrality B. Divided Loyalties - Socialists criticized the war as a capitalist and imperialist struggle between Germany and England for markets - Pacifists, believed war was evil and that the U.S. should set an example of peace. - Many simply didn’t want their sons to experience war.
35B. Divided Loyalties – continued - Many Americans felt close to Britain because of common ancestry, language and democratic systems. - Germany’s aggression increased U.S. sympathy for the allies. - America’s economic ties with the allies was stronger (during the first 2 years of the war, the U.S. shipped millions of dollars of war supplies to the Allies and orders kept coming!!!!)
36U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282 TOTAL U.S. POPULATION 1910: 91,972,266U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP IN MILLIONS
37WHAT EXPLAINS THE ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT IN THE U. S WHAT EXPLAINS THE ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT IN THE U.S. GIVEN THAT GERMANS COMPRISED THE SINGLE LARGEST FOREIGN-BORN GROUP?CLASHING WITH THE GERMANS IN SAMOA AND AT MANILA BAY OVER EXPANSION OF U.S. TERRITORIES IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURYCOMPETITION OVER TRADING IN CHINA, EAST INDIES, THE PACIFIC, AND AFRICAGERMAN DOMINANCE OF NAVAL AND ARMY POWER OVER THE U.S.GERMANY INVADED NEUTRAL BELGIUMBRITISH PROPAGANDA DEMONIZING THE GERMANS
38V. The War Hits HomeA. The British Blockade - Britain blockaded the German coast to stop supplies, including food. - Result = U.S. angry b/c the blockade threatened freedom of the seas and Germany experienced famine (750,000 Germans died of starvation by 1917)
39V. The War Hits Home – cont. B. German U-Boat Response - Germany responded with a counterblockade by U-boats = any allied ships in the waters around Britain would be sunk.
40AD PLACED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, 1915 NOTICE! Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, 1915.
41LUSITANIA SUNK, 1915BRITISH PASSENGER SHIP SUNK BY A GERMAN U-BOAT IN MORE THAN 1,000 PEOPLE KILLED INCLUDING 128 AMERICANS.
42V. War Hits Home – cont.C. Sinking of the Lusitania - May 7, 1915 – a U-boat sank the British liner the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. - 1,198 people died, 128 were Americans (Germany defended their actions on the grounds that the liner carried ammunition but Americans were still outraged)
44V. War Hits Home – cont.C. Sinking of the Lusitania – cont. - August 1915 – a U-boat sinks another liner, killing 2 Americans - Americans protest and Germany agrees not to sink any more passenger ships. - March 1916 – U-boat torpedoed an unarmed French passenger ship, killing 80 people, including some Americans. - Wilson still avoided war and was re-elected in 1916 using the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War”!
45THE ELECTION OF 1916REPUBLICAN SUPREME COURT JUSTICE CHARLES EVANS HUGHESDEMOCRAT PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSONWILSON RAN ON THE SLOGAN “HE KEPT US OUT OF WAR!” HOWEVER HE KNEW THAT THE U.S. WAS GETTING CLOSER TO ENTERING THE WARHUGHES CHALLENGED WILSON’S UNWILLINGNESS TO STAND UP TO THE GERMANS
46WILSON WON WITH 9,129,606 TO HUGHES’ 8,538,221. THE ELECTION WAS SO CLOSE THAT THE RESULT WAS NOT KNOWN FOR SEVERAL DAYS WHILE CALIFORNIA’S VOTES WERE TALLIED. WILSON’S LEAD IN CALIFORNIA WAS ONLY BY 3800 VOTES.WILSON WON WITH 9,129,606 TO HUGHES’ 8,538,221.
47VI. The U.S. Declares WarA. January 1917 Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare – promising to sink all ships in British waters- hostile or neutral. - U.S. now knows war in unavoidable but Wilson decides to wait for “actual overt acts” before declaring war.
48VI. U.S. Declares War – cont. B. The Zimmerman Telegram – Feb. 19171. Telegram sent from the German foreign minister, Arthur von Zimmerman to the German ambassador in Mexico2. Intercepted by British intelligence3. Telegram proposed:- that Mexico ally itself with Germany- if war broke out w/ the U.S., Germany would help Mexico recover “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
49Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916 ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917)On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlementYou are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916
50FEBRUARY 1, 1917GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR.WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST.
51VI. U.S. Declares War – cont. C. America Acts! - April 6, 1917 the U.S. declares war on Germany. - Wilson said that the U.S. must make the world “safe for democracy”
52WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 “THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.”
53CONGRESS DECLARED WAR APRIL 6, 1917 EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION “Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America; Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.”EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION
54VII. America Mobilizes A. Raising an Army: 1. U.S. was not prepared to fight – only ,000 men were in service.2. Selective Service Act—authorized a draft of young men for military service.- Act required men to register with the gov. to be randomly selected for service.- By 1918 – 24 million men had registered.- Nearly 3 millions were called up!3. 42 DIVISIONS SENT TO FRANCE - 2,084,000 MEN
55VII. America Mobilizes A. Raising an Army - continued 4. Avoiding the Draft- The government did exempt some shipyard workers from the draft because their work was valuable to the war effort.- Some Americans sought exemption from the war as a conscientious objector – someone who opposes war on moral grounds.* About 3,500 men obtained legal conscientious objector exemptions.* Some simply refused to cooperate with the military and 500 objectors were court-martialed and imprisoned.
56SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917 REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF (LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE DRAFTABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL POPULATIONABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES, CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS
57SECRETARY OF WAR BAKER PULLED DRAFT NUMBERS IN THE LOTTERY
59OVER THERE http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/overthere.htm Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, Show your grit, do your bit. Yankee to the ranks, From the towns and the tanks. Make your mother proud of you, And the old Red, White and Blue. (chorus sung twice)Chorus Over there, over there, Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming, The Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming Ev'rywhere. So prepare, say a pray'r, Send the word, send the word to beware. We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over Over there.Over ThereJohnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, On the run, on the run. Hear them calling, you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, No delay, go today, Make your daddy glad To have had such a lad. Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line. (chorus sung twice) Johnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun Who's a son of a gun. Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die.
60VII. America Mobilizes – cont. B. Convoy System - U.S. needed to get troops, ships, supplies, etc., to Europe but knew they faced the U-boats. - American Vice Admiral William S. Sims suggested the convoy system = heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth. - “Only” 637 Americans were lost to U- boats during the war.
61VIII. Fighting in the War American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was led by General John J. Pershing:American infantry were nicknamed “doughboys” because of the white belts that they cleaned with pipe clay, or “dough”.Most soldiers had never been far from home and none were prepared for the horrors of war.
62"ALL A SOLDIER NEEDS TO KNOW IS HOW TO SHOOT AND SALUTE." GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDER OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN WWI"ALL A SOLDIER NEEDS TO KNOW IS HOW TO SHOOT AND SALUTE."
63VIII. Fighting in the War – cont. B. New Weapons:- Machine Guns- Poison Gas- Armored tanks- Airplanes- Submarines
71VIII. Fighting in the War – cont. C. America on the Offensive – Russia pulls out of the war and Germany is close to Paris - Americans arrive and help stop the German advance and send the Germans retreating
72VIII. Fighting in the War – cont. D. Germany surrenders: - Nov. 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrenders - Same day, German soldiers mutiny - Nov. 9th new German gov. formed, Kaiser steps down - November 11, 1918 – Germany signs the armistice (an agreement to stop fighting) to end the war!
73IX. Final Toll Deaths = 22 million (1/2 civilians) U.S. lost 48,000 men in battle, 62,000 died of disease, more than 200,000 woundedWounded = 20 millionEconomic Cost = $338 billion
78A. WAR INDUSTRIES BOARDCREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON AND HEADED BY BERNARD BARUCHTO INCREASE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND COORDINATE DIFFERENT INDUSTRIESTHE GOVERNMENT TOOK OVER ALL FACTORIES.THE BOARD INSTRUCTED THE FACTORIES ON WHAT TO PRODUCE, HOW MUCH TO PRODUCE, AND THE COST OF THE ITEMSWOMEN'S BLOUSE FACTORIES MADE SIGNAL FLAGSRADIATOR MANUFACTURERS MADE GUNSAUTOMOBILE FACTORIES MADE AIRPLANE ENGINESPIANO COMPANIES MADE AIRPLANE WINGS
81POSTERS DESIGNED TO CONVINCE WORKERS IT WAS THEIR DUTY TO PRODUCE (AND THEREFORE NOT STRIKE)
82X. War at Home – Cont.B. War Economy - Most wages rose during the war - However, household income was cut because of rising food prices and housing costs - Stockholders saw huge profits - Union membership boomed - National War Labor Board was formed to manage disputes between workers and management.
83NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD HEADED BY EX-PRESIDENT TAFT WAS FORMED TO UNIFY LABOR POLICIES AND SERVED AS THE COURT FOR LABOR DISPUTESPRESIDENT WILSON HOPED TO PREVENT STRIKES AS THEY COULD STOP PRODUCTION OF MUCH NEEDED GOODS FOR THE WARDURING THE WAR THERE WERE OVER 6,000 STRIKES, AND THE NWLB HEARD OVER 1,000 CASESTHE NWLB ALSO WORKED TO IMPROVE WORKING CONDITIONS: AN EIGHT-HOUR WORKDAY WAS ESTABLISHED IN SOME AREAS, AND STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE ESTABLISHED
84X. War at Home – cont.C. Food Administration - Wilson set up the Food Administration under Herbert Hoover to convince Americans to conserve food. - Hoover called for people to follow the “gospel of the clean plate” - Called for, “meatless”, “sweetless”, “wheatless”, and “porkless” days.
85FOOD ADMINISTRATIONHEADED BY FUTURE PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER, NEVER IMPOSED SPECIFIC RATIONS BUT RELIED UPON VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATIONRATION: TO LIMIT THE AMOUNT OF FOOD OR RESOURCES PEOPLE CAN USEFAMOUS SLOGAN “FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR – DON’T WASTE IT”THE U.S. HAD TO PROVIDE FOOD FOR ITS OWN CITIZENS AS WELL AS THE ALLIED COUNTRIES
89X. War at Home – Cont.D. Financing the War - U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war - Gov. raised 1/3 through taxes: - increased income tax - taxes on tobacco, liquor, luxury goods - Gov. raised the rest through public borrowing – “Liberty Loan” and “Victory Loan” Bonds and War Stamps.
90THERE WERE FOUR MAJOR LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES WHICH AMASSED GREAT AMOUNTS OF MONEY FOR THE WAR EFFORT. PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE THE RED CROSS AND THE Y.M.C.A. ALSO HELD FUND RAISING EVENTS.BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMANEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
97KIDS WERE ENCOURAGED TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE LOAN DRIVES AS WELL
98X. War at Home – Cont.E. Committee on Public Information - to popularize the war, the govt. created the nation’s first propaganda agency, the (CPI) - Head of the CPI was George Creel - CPI’s job was to promote the war effort!
99LED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION: CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON TO SPREAD PRO-WAR PROPAGANDALED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL
100WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS It encouraged businesses to spy on their employees, parents to spy on their children, and neighbors to spy on neighbors, and to report "disloyal," pro-German sentiments. In the most ridiculous moments of the campaign, Americans banned the teaching of German in schools, tore German folksongs like "Oh Tannenbaum" from children's songbooks, changed German street names, and renamed saurkraut "victory cabbage." On the more serious side, those regarded as pro-German were hounded from their jobs, pressured to change their German names, and in a few cases beaten or lynched.
104CIVIL LIBERTIES RESTRICTED DURING THE WAR CIVIL LIBERTIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS THAT ARE PROTECTED IN THE BILL OF RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, HOWEVER IN TIMES OF CRISIS THEY HAVE BEEN RESTRICTED BY THE GOVERNMENT IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE LARGER GOALSDURING WORLD WAR ONE, LAWS WERE PASSED THAT SEVERELY RESTRICTED PEOPLE’S RIGHTS WHO SPOKE OUT AGAINST THE WAR EFFORTLED TO 6,000 ARRESTS AND OVER 1900 PROSECUTIONS WERE MADE UNDER THE LAWS
105X. War at Home –cont.F. Attacks on Civil Liberties - Americans from Germany or Austria-Hungary became targets of discrimination. - June 1917 the government passed the Espionage and Sedition Acts - a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or saying anything disloyal, profane of abusive about the government.
106EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT DURING WWI MANY AMERICAN SCHOOLS STOPPED OFFERING INSTRUCTION IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. CALIFORNIA'S STATE EDUCATION BOARD CALLED GERMAN A LANGUAGE OF "AUTOCRACY, BRUTALITY, AND HATRED”.SAUERKRAUT BECAME "LIBERTY CABBAGE"SALOONKEEPERS REMOVED PRETZELS FROM THE BARORCHESTRAL WORKS BY BACH, BEETHOVEN, AND BRAHMS VANISHED FROM MUSIC PROGRAMS, INCLUDING THAT OF THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONICMANY GERMAN AMERICANS WERE BADGERED, BEATEN, AND SOMETIMES KILLED.
107THE ESPIONAGE ACT OF 1917, LATER AMENDED AND CALLED THE SEDITION ACT OF 1918 SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.RANDOLPH: FOUNDED A MAGAZINE CALLED THE MESSENGER THAT CAMPAIGNED FOR BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS, DURING WAR ARRESTED FOR TREASON BECAUSE OPPOSED BLACK ENLISTMENT IN THE ARMY; DEBS: SOCIALIST WHO RAN FOR PRES MORE THAN ONCE, ARRESTED FOR MAKING A SPEECH OPPOSING THE ESPIONAGE ACT, WHILE IN PRISON RECEIVED ALMOST 1 MILLION VOTES FOR PRESIDENT; EASTMAN: JOURNALIST WHOSE PUBLICATION THE MASSES FELT THE WAR WAS BASED ON CAPITALIST GREED AND WANTED TO STAY NEUTRAL, PUBLISHED ARTICLES AGAINST ENTERING THE WAR, 2 JURIES DID NOT CONVICT; REED: JOURNALIST WHO WENT TO RUSSIA TO COVER REVOLUTION, BECAME SYMPATHETIC, GOVERNMENT SHUT DOWN THE PUBLICATION, HE WAS CONVICTED AND MANAGED TO ESCAPE WITH A FAKE PASSPORT; BERGER: AGAINST THE WAR, FOUND GUILTY SENTENCED TO 20 YEARS, WHILE FREE ON APPEAL ELECTED TO CONGRESS; HAYWOOD: ARRESTED FOR OPPOSING THE WAR WITH HIS UNION IWW, SENTENCED TO 20 YEARS AND 30,000 WHILE FREE ON BAIL FLED TO RUSSIA. CHARLES SCHENCK: member of the Socialist Party, sentenced to 15 years for publishing pamphlets urging citizens to refuse to participate in the draft. He called the draft slavery, among other things. SUPREME COURT RULED AGAINST SCHENCK’S PROTEST THAT LAWS TOOK AWAY HIS FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS “CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER” TEST.SEDITION ACT: The law made it a crime to criticize by speech or writing the government or Constitution.ESPIONAGE ACT: Additional penalties were included for the refusal to perform military duty. Over the next few months around 900 went to prison under the Espionage Act.SOME OF THE PEOPLE ARRESTED UNDER THESE LAWS. PLEASE SEE THE SPEAKER NOTES FOR DETAILS.RANDOLPHDEBSEASTMANREEDBERGERHAYWOOD
108TWO WELL-KNOWN ANARCHISTS, EMMA GOLDMAN AND ALEXANDER BERKMAN CONVICTED OF CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE DRAFT LAW WERE SENTENCED TO TWO YEARS IN A PENITENTIARY AND FINED $10,000 EACH, JULY 9, THEY WERE LATER DEPORTED TO RUSSIA.
109SCHENCK V. U.S.CHARLES SCHENCK, GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY, OPPOSED TO THE WAR, MAILED 15,000 PAMPHLETS TO RECENT DRAFTEES THAT CLAIMED THAT THE DRAFT WAS A VIOLATION OF THE 13TH AMENDMENT’S PROHIBITION OF SLAVERY AND TO PETITION FOR REPEAL OF THE DRAFT.HE WAS ARRESTED AND CONVICTED FOR INTERFERING WITH MILITARY RECRUITMENT UNDER THE ESPIONAGE ACT. HE ARGUED THAT HE WAS EXERCISING HIS FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHT TO FREE SPEECH.THE SUPREME COURT UPHELD THE CONVICTION IN 1919 AND JUSTICE HOLMES RULED THAT FREEDOM OF SPEECH COULD BE RESTRICTED WHEN THE WORDS PRESENTED A “CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER”. HE USED THE EXAMPLE OF YELLING “FIRE!” WHEN THERE WAS NONE IN A CROWDED THEATER.
110G. Social Change - War prompted the Great Migration, the large-scale movement of Southern blacks to cities in the north because: - escape racial discrimination - declining cotton industry - more job opportunities up North (Racial prejudice against African Americans still existed in the North) - African Americans made a significant contribution to the war effort at home and abroad.X. War at Home – cont.
111AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY
112BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s.CUTTING DOWN TREESBUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE
114EACH STAR REPRESENTED A SON FIGHTING IN THE WAR Ike Sims holds a sign with 11 stars, representing his 11 sons in service. During World War I, an indiscriminate amount of underprivileged citizens were called upon to serve their country in war. Many were African American and many families had multiple draftees.
115X. War at Home – cont. G. Social Change – cont. - Women entered the work force in large numbers and in jobs never before held by women.(President Wilson acknowledged the contribution of women saying, “The services of women during the supreme crisis have been of the most signal usefulness and distinction; it is high time that part of our debt should be acknowledged.” Their war effort helped spread support for suffrage.)
119X. War at Home – cont.H. Flu Epidemic - Fall of 1918 a flu epidemic affected ¼ of the U.S. - Economically devastating b/c – businesses shut down. - illness spread rapidly in the army - killed 500,000 Americans before the war was over (30 million worldwide).
120PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE INFLUENZA, 1918SOLDIERS NEAR BOSTON SUDDENLY STARTED DYINGTHE CAUSE OF DEATH WAS IDENTIFIED AS INFLUENZA, BUT IT WAS UNLIKE ANY STRAIN EVER SEENAS THE KILLER VIRUS SPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOSPITALS OVERFILLED, DEATH CARTS ROAMED THE STREETS AND HELPLESS CITY OFFICIALS DUG MASS GRAVESIT WAS THE WORST EPIDEMIC IN AMERICAN HISTORY, KILLING OVER 600,000, FIVE TIMES THE DEATHS OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE WAR. IT DISAPPEARED AS MYSTERIOUSLY AS IT HAD BEGUN.PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE
121INFLUENZA DEATHS PER 1,000 PEOPLE COMPARED TO THE NUMBERS OF DEATHS THE PREVIOUS YEAR
122XI. Peace TalksA. Wilson’s 14 Points, Jan. 18, 1918: 1. No secret treaties between nations 2. Freedom of seas 3. Tariffs should be lowered to foster trade 4. Arms should be reduced 5. Interests of colonial people should be considered. - Points 6-13 dealt with boundary changes based on the principles of self-determination
123XI. Peace Talks –cont. 14 Points –continued: The 14th Point called for the creation of an international peacekeeping organization to address diplomatic crises – League of Nations!The Allies reject Wilson’s 14 points because:They wanted to punish GermanyThey wanted to gain territory
124XI. Peace Talks – cont. B. Treaty of Versailles: - The “Big Four” meet in Paris to discuss the terms of peace.- Wilson (U.S.),- Georges Clemenceau (France)- David Lloyd George (Great Britain)- Vittorio Orlando (Italy)- delegates from 32 other countries - Russia and Germany not present- Treaty fails to ensure lasting peace!!!!
125XII. Legacy of the WarAmericans eager to return to “normalcy” – HardingU.S. military and government strengthenedAppalled by the destruction, Americans called WWI, “the war to end all wars.”However, unresolved issues will soon drag the U.S. into an even wider war!!!!