Presentation on theme: "American Involvement in the Great War. The War Hits Home American began to favor the Allies over the Central Powers because of repayment of debt and."— Presentation transcript:
American Involvement in the Great War
The War Hits Home American began to favor the Allies over the Central Powers because of repayment of debt and Germans threating US shipping American were upset at Britain’s blockade of Germany Germany responded by blockading Britain using U-boats, submarines. Germany U-boats sank the Lusitania in 1915. Lusitania was a British ship that was carrying 128 Americans US protested and Germany agreed to stop using submarine warfare if Britain would lift its blockade
US Declares War Wilson wins reelection in 1916 on the slogan “He kept us out of war.” He hoped for a peaceful ending Germans stated they would sink any ship in British waters on sight, hostile or neutral US intercepts the Zimmerman note, telegram from Germany to Mexico trying to bring them into their alliance by promising them lost territory in America for their support. US declares war in 1917 and Congress approved. Wilson believed the US had to enter the war to pave the way for peace and freedom.
Propaganda poster after the sinking of the Lusitania put out across Europe. Homework; find a propaganda poster from the Great War that you think would have influenced you to go and fight for your country and tell me why you think it would have motivated you to go enlist.
American Power Tips the Balance Congress passed the Selective Service Act, required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. (24 million, 3 million were called) African Americans served in segregated units and were not allowed to serve in the navy or marines. Soldiers often trained with fake weapons Began using the convoy system, heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships across the Atlantic and laid mines in the North Sea
Allied troops were exhausted and demoralized. US provided freshness and enthusiasm. Pershing becomes the leader of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe. American soldiers were called doughboys. American soldiers arrived in May 1918. Many people did not go because they were conscientious objectors, person who opposed the war on moral grounds. Germany surrendered on the eleventh hour or the eleventh day of the eleventh month 1918. They agreed to an armistice, truce to end the war. 22 million dead, 20 million wounded. Cost $338 billion. 48,000 Americans dead in battle 62,000 dead from disease. People thought there would be a return to normalcy, but the world and life had changed.
The War at Home Home front, refers to activities in the US during the war The entire economy was refocused on the war effort. National War Labor Board, government agency that controlled and organized the economy during the war Congress gave President Wilson direct control over much of the economy, including the power to fix prices and nationalize certain industries. Most wages rose during the war. Rising food prices undercut the wage increases Paid for the war by raising taxes on excise tax and a war-profit tax. Also sold war bonds.
Used propaganda, biased communication designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions. Germany and Austria-Hungry immigrants became subject to attacks. Name changes on items Congress passes the Espionage and Sedition Acts, a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal about the government. Clearly violated the 1 st Amendment Great migration by blacks from the South to the Northern cities. Congress passes the 19 th Amendment in 1919 to give women the right to vote. They began to seek opportunities outside the home.
Wilson Fights for Peace Wilson’s plan was called the 14 points: Out of the 14 points Wilson the two major ones are a creation of the League of Nations, forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without having to resort to war, and self- determination for countries It was thought the League of Nations threatened the US policy of isolationism (Henry Cabot Lodge). It was also voluntary. Allied leaders rejected Wilson’s plan. Big 3 Wilson, George and Clemenceau.
Treaty of Versailles 9 new countries are created or changed boundaries. Germany was not allowed to have an army, they had to give up Alsace-Lorraine and had to pay reparations, war damages. War-guilt clause, Germany had to admit sole responsibility for starting the Great War. Strong opposition to the treaty in the US. US Senate does not ratify the treaty. We never join the League of Nations Became known as the war to end all wars.