Presentation on theme: "21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800"— Presentation transcript:
1 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 QUIT21CHAPTERAbsolute Monarchsin Europe, 1500–1800Chapter OverviewTime LineMAPSECTION1Spain’s Empire and European AbsolutismSECTION2France’s Ultimate MonarchSECTION3Central European Monarchs ClashSECTION4Russian Czars Increase PowerGRAPHSECTION5Parliament Limits the English MonarchyVisual Summary
2 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 HOME21CHAPTERAbsolute Monarchsin Europe, 1500–1800Chapter OverviewFrom 1500 to 1800, absolute monarchs rule in Europe. In countries such as Spain and France, rulers wield great power and build major monuments to their rule. In countries such as England and the Netherlands, constitutional law limits royal power.
3 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 HOME Time Line 1500 1800 CHAPTERAbsolute Monarchsin Europe, 1500–1800Time Line1533 Ivan the Terrible begins to rule Russia.1643 Louis XIV begins to rule France.1697 Peter the Great begins European tour. He later built St. Petersburg to rival European capitals.150018001579 Netherlands declares independence from Spain.1649 Puritans under Oliver Cromwell execute English King.1756 Frederick the Great begins Seven Years’ War.
4 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Key Idea 1 HOME1Spain’s Empire andEuropean AbsolutismMAPKey IdeaIn the 1500s, Philip II of Spain becomes the strongest ruler in Europe, helping establish absolute monarchy. But in time Spain weakens, and the Netherlands breaks away from Spanish rule.OverviewAssessment
5 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Overview 1 • Philip II HOME1Spain’s Empire andEuropean AbsolutismMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• Philip II• absolute monarch• divine rightMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDuring a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II ruled Spain with a strong hand.When faced with crises, many heads of government take on additional economic or political powers.Assessment
6 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism 1 1 HOME1Spain’s Empire andEuropean AbsolutismMAPSection1Assessment1. List the conditions that allowed European monarchs to gain power. Then list the ways they exercised their increased power.Absolute MonarchRise of citiesWealth of coloniesGrowth of national kingdomsBreakdown of Church authorityGrowth of middle classDecline of feudalismRevoltsEconomic and religious crisesReduced power of nobles and representative bodiesCreated new government bureaucraciesRegulated worship, social gatherings, and economyIncreased size of courtcontinued . . .
7 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism 1 1 HOME1Spain’s Empire andEuropean AbsolutismMAPSection1Assessment2. What does the art described in this section reveal about the cultures of Spain and the Netherlands? THINK ABOUT• what the art of Velázquez and El Greco reveals about Spain• what the art of Rembrandt and Vermeer reveals about the NetherlandsANSWERPossible Responses:• Velázquez showed pride of Spanish monarchs.• El Greco showed Catholic faith in Spain.• Rembrandt and Vermeer showed the importance of merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class in the Netherlands.End of Section 1
8 France’s Ultimate Monarch Key Idea 2 HOME2France’s UltimateMonarchKey IdeaReligious wars plague France in the 1500s. With the rise of Louis XIV, France becomes Europe’s most powerful nation. Louis’s rule extends French power and prestige, but he leads the country into crippling wars.OverviewAssessment
9 France’s Ultimate Monarch Overview 2 • Edict of Nantes HOME2France’s UltimateMonarchTERMS & NAMESOverview• Edict of Nantes• Cardinal Richelieu• skepticism• Louis XIV• intendant• Jean Baptiste Colbert• War of the Spanish SuccessionMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter a century of war and riots, France was ruled by Louis XIV, the most powerful monarch of his time.Louis used his power to build a great palace and sponsor art that is part of France’s cultural legacy.Assessment
10 France’s Ultimate Monarch 2 2 HOME2France’s UltimateMonarchSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major events of Louis XIV’s reign.164317151661166716721685Louis becomes king.Riots disrupt France.Louis starts rule.Louis invades the Spanish Netherlands.Louis invades the Dutch Netherlands.Louis voids Edict of Nantes.Louis fights War of Spanish Succession.Louis dies.continued . . .
11 France’s Ultimate Monarch 2 2 HOME2France’s UltimateMonarchSection2Assessment2. Many historians think of Louis XIV as the perfect example of an absolute monarch. Do you agree? Explain why or why not. THINK ABOUT• the description of an absolute monarch at the end of Section 1• the ways in which Louis XIV fits that description• any ways in which Louis XIV does not fit the descriptionANSWERPossible Response:Yes—regulated worship by voiding Edict of Nantes, weakened nobility by using intendants and making nobles live at court, built palace to show power, used mercantilist policies to control economycontinued . . .
12 France’s Ultimate Monarch 2 2 HOME2France’s UltimateMonarchSection2Assessment3. How did the policies of Colbert and Louis XIV affect the French economy? Explain both positive and negative effects. THINK ABOUT• Colbert’s attempts to make France self-sufficient• what happened when Louis cancelled the Edict of Nantes• the cost of Versailles and warsANSWERPossible Responses:Colbert’s mercantilism helped economy by building up and protecting French industries.Louis XIV helped economy by using Colbert’s policies but hurt it by voiding Edict of Nantes, which drove out Huguenots, and by taxing and spending to fund building and wars.End of Section 2
13 Central European Monarchs Clash Key Idea 3 HOME3Central EuropeanMonarchs ClashKey IdeaCentral Europe also becomes the scene of devastating wars. The most destructive conflict, the Thirty Years’ War, severely weakens the Holy Roman Empire. Afterward, Austria and Prussia struggle for power.OverviewAssessment
14 Central European Monarchs Clash Overview 3 • Thirty Years’ War HOME3Central EuropeanMonarchs ClashTERMS & NAMESOverview• Thirty Years’ War• Maria Theresa• Frederick the Great• Seven Years’ WarMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter a period of turmoil, absolute monarchs ruled Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia.Prussia built a strong military tradition in Germany that contributed in part to world wars in the 20th century.Assessment
15 Central European Monarchs Clash 3 3 HOME3Central EuropeanMonarchs ClashSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great.Points of ComparisonMaria TheresaFrederick the GreatYears of reignForeign policySuccess in warSteps to become absolute monarchsAllied with former enemy FranceAllied with Austria’s former ally BritainLost Silesia in War of Austrian Succession and did not regain it in Seven Years’ WarGained Silesia in War of Austrian Succession and neither gained nor lost in Seven Years’ WarImposed limits on nobilityFollowed his father’s military policiescontinued . . .
16 Central European Monarchs Clash 3 3 HOME3Central EuropeanMonarchs ClashSection3Assessment2. Name several ways that the Peace of Westphalia laid the foundations of modern Europe. THINK ABOUT• religious effects• diplomatic effects• political effectsANSWER• ended religious wars, allowing Europe to split into Catholic and Protestant areas• weakened Holy Roman Empire• recognized Europe as collection of independent states• began modern way of negotiatingPossible Responses:End of Section 3
17 Russian Czars Increase Power Key Idea 4 HOME4Russian CzarsIncrease PowerGRAPHKey IdeaRussian rulers begin to dominate the nobility in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under Peter the Great, Russia opens up to the West and becomes a key European power.OverviewAssessment
18 Russian Czars Increase Power Overview 4 • Ivan the Terrible • boyars HOME4Russian CzarsIncrease PowerGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Ivan the Terrible• boyars• Peter the Great• westernizationMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWPeter the Great made many changes in Russia to try to make it more like western Europe.Many Russians today debate whether to model themselves on the West or to focus on traditional Russian culture.Assessment
19 Russian Czars Increase Power 4 4 HOME4Russian CzarsIncrease PowerGRAPHSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the important events of Peter the Great’s reign.Peter the GreatHad St. Petersburg builtVisited western EuropeTook control of churchFought Sweden for Baltic landReduced power of landownersModernized armyTried to westernize Russiacontinued . . .
20 Russian Czars Increase Power 4 4 HOME4Russian CzarsIncrease PowerGRAPHSection4Assessment2. Do you think Ivan the Terrible or Peter the Great was more of an absolute monarch? Explain the standards by which you made your decision. THINK ABOUT• ways that each increased the power of the Russian czar• long term effects of each one’s ruleANSWERPossible Responses:Ivan—Took title czar, which means “caesar”; expanded Russia; gave law code; organized his own police force; persecuted boyars; created new class of nobles. Aimed to increase and protect his own power more than to improve Russia.Peter—Took control of church; reduced power of landowners; strengthened army; imposed heavy taxes; forced nobles to move to St. Petersburg. Made reforms whether people wanted them or not.continued . . .
21 Russian Czars Increase Power 4 4 HOME4Russian CzarsIncrease PowerGRAPHSection4Assessment3. Which of Peter the Great’s actions reveal that he saw himself as the highest authority in Russia? Explain.THINK ABOUT• steps he took to reduce the authority of others• actions that overturned traditional sources of authority in RussiaANSWERPossible Responses:• showed he saw himself above church by taking control of it• showed he saw himself above nobility by weakening it and forcing it to westernize• showed he saw himself above tradition by forcing Western customs on RussiaEnd of Section 4
22 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Key Idea 5 HOME5Parliament Limits theEnglish MonarchyKey IdeaEnglish kings battle Parliament for power in the 1600s, leading to civil war. Parliament wins, and a Puritan government is formed. The monarchy is later restored, but its power is limited by law.OverviewAssessment
23 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Overview 5 • Charles I HOME5Parliament Limits theEnglish MonarchyTERMS & NAMESOverview• Charles I• English Civil War• Oliver Cromwell• Restoration• habeas corpus• Glorious Revolution• constitutional monarchy• cabinetMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAbsolute rulers in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power.Many of the government reforms of this period contributed to the democratic tradition of the United States.Assessment
24 Conflicts with Parliament HOME5Parliament Limits theEnglish MonarchySection5Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the causes of each monarch’s conflict with Parliament.MonarchConflicts with ParliamentJames ICharles IJames IIBelieved in divine right to ruleWanted large funds to pay for court and warsDid not make Puritan reformsWanted funds to finance warsTried to force all subjects to be AnglicanResisted Parliament’s attempts to restrict his powerFlaunted his faithNamed Catholics to high officecontinued . . .
25 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy 5 5 HOME5Parliament Limits theEnglish MonarchySection5Assessment2. In your opinion, which decisions of Charles I made his conflict with Parliament worse? Explain.THINK ABOUT• decisions that lost him the support of Parliament• decisions that lost him the support of his peopleANSWERPossible Responses:• He alienated Parliament by dissolving it, ignoring Petition of Right, and trying to arrest Parliamentary leaders.• He alienated his subjects by imposing fines and fees on them and trying to force them all to be Anglican.End of Section 5