Presentation on theme: "Europe’s Political Landscape: 1-2000 In 100 year increments PRUDD EHS MAR08 High definition maps are available at this site:"— Presentation transcript:
Europe’s Political Landscape: 1-2000 In 100 year increments PRUDD EHS MAR08 High definition maps are available at this site: http://www.euratlas.com/time1.htmhttp://www.euratlas.com/time1.htm
Hegemony: –noun, plural -nies. 1.leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation. 2.leadership; predominance. 3.(esp. among smaller nations) aggression or expansionism by large nations in an effort to achieve world domination.
Year 1 AD The pink area represents the extent of Roman hegemony in the year 1 AD
Year 1 AD Rome was the seat of power for the empire. In the year 1, Britain remained a mystery to the Romans. Julius Caesar, who unsuccessfully attempted to invade and conquer Britain, wrote that the Britons were a mystical people whose chief priests were druids. Because Britons were almost wholly illiterate, and left virtually no writen records, not much is really known about these people, their religions, or their way of life in general.
Britain was invaded in AD43 by the Emperor Claudius. He had to prove he was a brilliant general, and so set out to do what other emperors had failed to do. By 100, Rome had consolidated and extended its frontier against the Germanic people. Rome would forever live in the shadow of fear of these very powerful ‘barbarian’ warriors. The Mediterranean Sea was completely controlled by Rome, who had virtually eradicated piracy. Roman people rather arrogantly called it ‘Our Pond’.
Rome has lost some ground in the Germanic lands, but increased its holdings in the Near East.
Year 300 AD Significant kingdoms are becoming established in opposition to the Roman Empire. These are better able to defend themselves as they have better organised and centralised governing structures. For the first time Rome is faced with determined and organised resistance from within Europe itself. As we shall see, these emerging nation/states will eventually rival Rome and help to bring about its demise.
The Empire is pretty stable, with only small gains made in the Near East.
Year 400 AD The German States are becoming increasingly worrisome.
Year 400 AD Rome nearly bankrupts itself trying to maintain a massive standing army, whilst simultaneously attempting to build a wall along the barbarian frontier. Both enterprises ultimately fail. This is because the Romans only had a basic understanding of economics.
Year 400 AD Western Roman Empire Eastern Roman Empire Rome is no longer the center of the Empire: Emperors such as Constantine prefer the East. In fact, Constantine builds Constantinople and divides the Empire into two halves. He declares Christianity to be the official Roman state religion and sets about persecuting and killing thousands of Pagans. To this day, Constantine is regarded as a Saint in the Eastern, Orthodox Christian religion.
Rome has committed two strategic errors. The first of these is that they have forgotten Julius Caesar’s own axiom: divide and conquer. By dividing itself in half, Rome has become easier to defeat. This is because it is easier to defeat half of the empire than the whole. Secondly, Rome attempted to consolidate power within its own borders. As Napoleon wrote (centuries) later: “he who stays within his own defenses is lost”. By retreating behind their walls, Rome lost its ascendancy: it was only ever truly successful at occupying other nations and peoples and then using the local infrastructure to maintain control (backed up with the muscle of the legions where necessary). It simply had no experience of managing an enterprise so large as Europe itself. It lacked the innovative generalship and governmental apparatus to continue to extend its hegemony: it did not have the infrastructure and knowledge to maintain and defend a huge territory. They did not even have the knowledge to be able to accurately map their dominion: nobody could know everything about the whole empire! Perhaps that is why Constantine divided the empire: he may have thought that the entire empire was indefensible anyway and therefore resolved to ‘cut his losses’. These two strategic errors led to the invasion and subjugation of the Western Roman Empire by foreign powers. As an empire, Rome had reached its apex and was now clearly on the decline. Nobody really knows exactly what happened in this tumultuous period of history, but within the space of one generation, the West was plunged into chaos and disaster. Historians refer to this as the beginning of the ‘dark ages’ or the medieval period.
The Eastern Roman Empire however, remained essentially unchanged (though a lot more nervous, no doubt). The Western Roman Empire collapsed, causing massive disruption across the whole of Europe. The West was basically bankrupt, lacked a cohesive central authority and was easily conquered by the increasingly sophisticated and organised Germanic people. Many of these, including the Goths, Visigoths, Saxons and Vandals, conquered huge territories and established their own hegemony in these areas.
Year 500 AD One important change during this century was the rise of a stronger Arab state, which began to extend its hegemony at the expense of other states, including the Eastern Roman Empire.
Year 500 AD Britain is becoming divided - the last Roman legions left Britain in 410 AD. This meant that for most of the 5th Century, Britain was left to defend itself against increasingly hostile neighbours.
The Scandinavian people are becoming wealthier and better organised. These people will, within a few centuries, explode across Europe as the ‘Viking Scourge’.
Year 600 AD Britain is even more fractured and divided, as Angles, Jutes, Saxons and Irish all make significant incursions.
Year 600 AD Europe is becoming more fractured, and the Eastern Roman Empire, while continuing to be the dominant force in the region, is failing to extend its hegemony. The rise of a vibrant, Arabic culture is continuing: for example, Arab doctors are amongst the best in the world and they preserve much of the knowledge of the ancient Romans and Greeks.
The development of Islam occurred in this century. This is represented by green shaded area. It is said that…“Islam spread at the point of a sword”: Mohammad himself led military raids against rival towns that did not accept the Islamic religion. These people make significant inroads against the Eastern Roman Empire in this century.
Some nations are starting to consolidate and centralise power in Europe. These form the basis of most of the nations we know today. The Eastern Roman Empire, now called the Byzantine Civilisation, is shrinking. This is the only literary link left in Europe to the ancient past, including the Greek and Egyptian civilisations. This is because in the West, poor literacy levels, political instability and internecine warfare has meant that few people can learn about the distant past. The Roman Empire has become a distant memory and most people would have never heard of it at all. Two forms of Christianity flourish in this period of history. In the East, the Byzantine religion becomes known as ‘Orthodox’, whilst in the West it has become known as ‘Catholic’. Both religions are descended from the one state religion developed by the Emperor Constantine.
The Scandinavian Kingdoms are starting to consolidate and cetralise power. The Danes in particular are developing trade routes to the East and West. The Monastery at Lindesfarne is sacked in 793, ushering in the Viking age. Lindesfarne 793
Year 800 AD Charlemagne meaning Charles the Great; numbered Charles I of France was King from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into an Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe
Reign of Charlemagne: The most influential Medieval man? King of the Franks: 24 September 768 – 28 January 814 ; 24 September 768 28 January 814 King of the Lombards: 774 – 28 January 814 ; 28 January 814 Emperor: 25 December 800 – 28 January 814 25 December 800 28 January 814 Coronation King of the Franks: c. June 754, St Denis; King of the Lombards: 774; Holy Roman Emperor: 25 December 800, Rome 25 December 800 Rome Titles Patrician of the Romans Born c. 2 April 742 /747 2 April 742 Died28 January 814Palace of Aachen28 January 814Palace of Aachen BuriedPalatine Chapel in AachenPalatine Chapel in Aachen Cited in: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne
The Eastern Roman Empire continues to shrink, as corruption, political intrigue and betrayal becomes the norm. Poor leadership and ineffectual governance means that they are unable to successfully defend their entire frontier. This is partly because they are unable to adapt to changes in the world around them: they are used to being the dominant power in the region and seriously underestimate the resolve and tenacity of their enemies. In this century, they lost most of Greece to outside forces. This is a serious blow, as Greece had been occupied and governed by Rome for over a thousand years.
Year 900 AD The Frankish Kingdom has been divided. Britain is also divided, as it grapples with foreign invasion from the Danes, a foreign King (Cnut) in England and Viking incursions.
Note the development of the Holy Roman Empire, the consolidation of the Western Frankish Kingdom and the beginning of the Reconquista: the re-taking of Spain from the Moors.
Year 1000 AD The Vikings are establishing themselves as masters of vast tracts of Slavic lands (They are called the ‘Rus’): Russia is named after them.
Year 1000 AD England is finally unified under a Saxon King: Edward. This period of Anglo-Saxon Hegemony would not last long: in 1066 William of Normandy invaded and subjugated the fledgling nation.
Year 1000 AD The Principality of Kiev was slowly being Christianised, after the rule of Vladimir the Great (980-1015). So powerful was this king, that he even invaded the Eastern Roman Empire, threatening the very existence of the state. He only withdrew after he had won significant trade concessions from the Byzantine Emperor. Such was the power of the Kiev state in the 10th Century, that it rivaled Europe itself in both power and wealth. The ruling elite of the Kiev Principality were Scandinavian warriors (Vikings) who had entrenched themselves in all positions of power.
Year 1100 AD This century saw the rise of several ‘Rus- sian’ Principalities. All of these were (at least nominally) Christian states, having been Christianised by the Byzantium church. (Russia’s dominant religion remains Orthodox today).
Year 1100 AD The Spanish pushed the Moors back, while the Eastern Roman Empire saw much of its land taken over as a dominant Islamic state evolved along its Eastern borders.
The Ottoman Empire invaded and conquered the Eastern Roman Empire, thus finally ending the 2000 YO Roman state. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania agreed to become a Christian state and the Mongols sacked large parts of Russia. (The Golden Horde).