Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1763 TO 1775 A CLASH OF NEW ATTITUDES."— Presentation transcript:
THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1763 TO 1775 A CLASH OF NEW ATTITUDES
Pontiacs Rebellion (1763) Chief Pontiac refused to surrender Lands –Led to an Indian alliance in Ohio Valley and Great Lakes Germ Warfare Proclamation 1763
MERCANTILISM Before 1763
AN ECONOMIC THEORY PRINCIPLES –COLONIES EXIST TO BENEFIT THE MOTHER COUNTRY. –COLONIES PROVIDE RAW MATERIALS –COLONIES PROVIDE MARKETS FOR FINISHED PRODUCTS –COLONIES PROVIDE MILITARY OUTPOSTS.
MORE PRINCIPLES COLONIES RECEIVE TRADING RIGHTS WITHIN THE EMPIRE COLONIES ARE PROTECTED BY THE MOTHER COUNTRY. THE MOTHER COUNTRY SHOULD HAVE A POSITIVE TRADE BALANCE. COLONIES CANNOT TRADE OUTSIDE THE COLONIAL SYSTEM.
BRITISH MERCANTILE POLICY NAVIGATION ACTS CONTROL TRADE WITHIN THE EMPIRE. –NAVIGATION ACT ALL MUST BE CARRIED BY BRITISH SHIPS –NAVIGATION ACT 1660 – ENUMERATES GOODS.AMERICANS CANNOT SELL OUTSIDE THE EMPIRE. –NEW NAVIGATION ACT AMERICANS CAN ONLY BUY BRITISH GOODS.
POLICY OF SALUTARY NEGLECT NAVIGATION LAWS ONLY RANDOMLY ENFORCED AMERICANS OPENLY VIOLATE THE NAVIGATION ACTS. NO SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES LAW WITHOUT SANCTION IS NO LAW IT IS A REQUEST.
MOLASSES ACT PENCE PER GALLON TAX ON MOLASSES CAN ONLY BE PURCHASED IN BRITISH WEST INDIES. AMERICAN OBJECT, LAW IS NOT ENFORCED.
VICTORY CHANGES BRITISH POLICY 1763 FACED WITH NATIONAL DEBT PARLIAMENT ABANDONS SALUTARY NEGLECT WILL NOW VIGOROUSLY ENFORCE THE NAVIGATION ACTS.
THE GRENVILLE PROGRAM NEW LAWS GOAL: – GET AMERICANS TO PAY 1/3 RD OF COST OF DEFENSE. –REDUCE THE NATIONAL DEBT –MAKE THE AMERICAN COLONIALS RESPECT BRITISH LAW
THE CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION A NEW AMERICAN ATTITUDE SELF ASSURED WANTED MORE SELF CONTROL. DID NOT WANT TO BE SUBORDINATE
A NEW BRITISH ATTITUDE WANTED TO TIGHTEN CONTROL OF THE COLONIES. MAKE THE COLONIES PAY ONE THIRD THE COST OF THEIR DEFENSE.
BRITISH POLITICS THE RISE OF KING GEORGE III 1760 THE END OF SALUTARY NEGLECT.
Who is King George III? Extremely stubborn His government was filled with men who were… –Inexperience –Inward-looking –Narrow – minded Wanted to control the colonies 50 years of Whig power was about to give way to a conservative government dominated by the King.
Navigation Laws Purpose: enforce the mercantilist system Motive: First enacted in 1651; aimed at rival Dutch shippers who were active in the American trade. Basic provisions passed in 17th and 18th centuries: – Restricted commerce to and from the colonies to English or American vessels. –Certain "enumerated" articles (tobacco) couldnt be shipped to any other foreign market except England –All European goods going to America had to go through England first. –Certain restrictions on colonial manufactures for export: British did not want manufacturing competition with the Colonies. –Molasses Act (1733)
Positive Impact Until 1763, it did not adversely impact the colonial economy. Colonials had rights of Englishmen and opportunities for self-government Colonies had British military protection Colonies greatly profited from manufacturing and trading.
Negative Impact Colonial manufacturing was hindered by British policies. Southern colonies suffered as export prices dropped New England resented favorable British policies toward Southern colonies (who produced tobacco, sugar and rice).
THE USE IF WRITS OF ASSISTANCE –Search warrants by British customs officers harassed colonial shipping. –Aimed to reduce colonial smuggling JAMES OTIS PROTESTS THEIR USE AS A VIOLATION OF THE RIGHTS OF ENGLISHMEN. –Otis efforts gained press throughout the colonies. –Wrote famous words "no taxation without representation." THE PROCLAMATION OF 1763 NEW COLONIAL POLICY
THE GRENVILLE PROGRAM THE SUGAR ACT OF 1764 –First act ever passed specifically that raised revenue for the crown. –Aimed to regulate the illegal triangular trade –Reduced taxes on molasses but taxed all molasses –Not enforced effectively
Continued…. THE STAMP ACT 1765 THE FIRST DIRECT TAX. –Purpose: Raise revenues to support the new military force in the colonies –Provisions: Official stamps would serve as proof of payment. Tax applied to published materials and legal documents e.g., pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, bills of lading, marriage certificates, death certificates, mortgages, insurance policies, liquor licenses, & playing cards. Both Sugar Act and Stamp Act provided for trying offenders in admiralty courts where juries were not allowed
THE AMERICAN REACTION THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS –Brought together 27 delegates from 9 colonies –Massachusetts invited colonies who adopted Virginia Resolves to meet. –Drew up a statement of their rights and grievances Largely ignored in England; of little consequence in the colonies –Significance: Brought together reps from different & rival colonies and set a precedent RESOLUTIONS OF PROTEST TO THE KING
THE AMERICAN REACTION (cont) THE SONS OF LIBERTY LEAD BY SAMUEL ADAMS –Violently enforced nonimportation agreements against violators (tarring & feathering was one painful tactic). NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENTS. –Of British Good –England economy suffered from non-importation –Was not decisive in reversing Parliaments decision
REPEAL OF THE GRENVILLE PROGRAM THE NEW MOLASSES TAX THE DECLARATORY ACT 1766 –Purpose was partly to save face –Claimed that Parliament had the right to tax colonies in the future GRENVILLE IS REMOVED FROM POWER.
THE TOWNSHEND PROGRAM 1767 CHARLES TOWNSHEND TAKES OVER. –NO DIRECT TAXES. Small import duty placed on glass, white lead, paper, paint, silk and tea. Tax was an indirect customs duty ("external tax") –MAKES PROVISION TO PAY ROYAL GOVERNORS. Revenues from taxes to pay salaries of royal governors and judges –CUT POWER OF THE PURSE.
SUSPENDS THE NEW YORK LEGISLATURE FOR REFUSING TO QUARTER TROOPS. –Certain colonies required to provide food & quarters for British troops. INCREASES USE OF WRITS OF ASSISTANCE. SMUGGLERS TRIED IN ADMIRALTY COURTS –Established a commission and vice-admiralty courts for enforcement. –Royal judges would be allowed to grant "writs of assistance" in private homes, shops or warehouses. MORE:
AMERICAN REACTION TO TOWNSHEND DUTIES NEW NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENT. JOHN DICKENSONS LETTERS FROM A FARMER. –Challenged distinction between "internal" and "external" taxes. –Denied right to levy taxes for purpose of revenue. –Prompted the Massachusetts Circular Letter Massachusetts legislature, urged by Sam Adams and James Otis, supported Dickinson's arguments and called for other colonies to pass petitions calling for Parliament to repeal the acts. OPEN VIOLATION OF THE LAW.
THE BOSTON MASSACRE, 1770 SONS OF LIBERTY PROVOKED THE INCIDENT. 5 AMERICAN COLONIALS KILLED. JOHN ADAMS DEFENDS THE SOLDIERS. VIOLENCE INCREASES.
LORD NORTH BECOMES PRIME MINISTER TOWNSHEND DUTIES REPEALED EXCEPT FOR SMALL TAX ON TEA. NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENTS END. AMERICANS BUY SMUGGLED TEA.
THE FINAL CRISIS BASIC ISSUES UNRESOLVED. SAM ADAMS ORGANIZES COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE. –Some colonial discontent continued as British redoubled efforts to enforce the Navigation Laws. –Samuel Adams used propaganda to whip up colonial resentment – Adams organized in Mass., Nov –To spread propaganda and info. by interchanging letters in order to keep opposition to British policy alive. –Intercolonial committees of correspondence emerged –Intercolonial groups evolved directly into the first American congresses EAST INDIA COMPANY MONOPOLY ON TEA TRADE WITH THE COLONIES. PRICE FALLS BELOW SMUGGLED TEA.
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY SONS OF LIBERTY DUMP $750,000 WORTH OF TEA. BRITISH RESPOND BY PASSING: THE COERCIVE ACT OR INTOLERABLE ACTS 1774 CLOSE BOSTON HARBOR
SUSPEND MASS. LEGISLATURE AND TOWN MEETINGS. PASS THE QUARTERING ACT 1774 PARLIAMENT PASSES THE QUEBEC ACT 1774 BRITISH OFFICIALS ACCUSED OF CRIME WILL BE TRIED IN BRITAIN. OTHER BRITISH REACTIONS
COLONIAL REACTION CALL THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS 1774 DEMAND REPEAL OF THE INTOLERABLE ACTS SUFFOLK RESOLVES WHICH DECLARE INTOLERABLE ACTS VOID.
FCC: Sept. 5 to Oct. 26, of 13 colonies present (except Georgia) Delegates included S.Adams, J. Adams, G. Washington, & Patrick Henry. 1st Step: endorse several resolutions known as the Suffolk Resolves. –Denounced "Intolerable" Acts –Urged colonies to organize militia for defensive purposes –Called on colonies to suspend all trade with rest of British empire –Urged citizens not to pay taxes. Rejection of Galloway Plan –Joseph Galloway called for a colonial union required to approve all parliamentary laws affecting the colonies
MORE… DECLARATION OF RIGHTS AND GRIEVANCES –Gave colonists the legal right to assemble in order to seek redress. –"Bill of Rights": established structure for the Declaration of Independence (Preamble, list of grievances and mutual pledge) DEMAND RESPECT FOR RIGHTS.
OTHER REACTIONS FORM THE ASSOCIATION TO ENFORCE A BOYCOTT. –Called for a complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption. ADVISED COLONIAL MILITIAS TO STOCKPILE WEAPONS AND POWDER. CALL FOR THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS TO MEET IN 1775.