Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution. The Revolution = more than the War of Independence –A revolution in thought… –Colonists begin to see themselves as distinct from."— Presentation transcript:
The Revolution = more than the War of Independence –A revolution in thought… –Colonists begin to see themselves as distinct from Britain –Begin to question the need for monarchy –A long process that is accelerated by the events of 1763-1776
Causes of the American Revolution A combination of ideas, issues, and events. There is no one cause.
1763-1776 -- Change in British policy towards the colonies. –No more salutary neglect after F & I War… –Reasons: Debt Large territory to govern / protect –George Grenville Proclamation of 1763 Sugar Act of 1764 Stamp Act of 1765
Stamp Act A revenue-seeking tax to support the cost of keeping the military in the colonies. Taxes a wide range of items: legal documents, cards, dice, newspaper, etc. First direct tax in the colonies
Reaction to the Stamp Act Colonists see the act as an attack on their liberties. –Drains money from pockets (tax must be paid in gold or silver), creating hardships –“Standing Armies” = bad! –Only locally elected legislatures can tax colonists…not a distant government with no representatives. (TAXATION W/O REPRESENTATION)
Response to Stamp Act Political Protests –Stamp Act Congress –9 colonies send delegates –Issues petition to England calling for repeal. –First step towards inter-colonial unity.
Response to Stamp Act Popular Protests –Sons of Liberty – formed by Samuel Adams in Boston –Use intimidation and violence to force Stamp agents to resign.
Response to Stamp Act Economic Protests –Boycott of British goods –Colonies purchase ¼ of all goods out of England…so a boycott hurts. –Enforced in communities by the Sons of Liberty. –Women’s role: “the homespun movement”
Repeal of the Stamp Act Economic pressure and ineffectiveness of the Act (no $ is ever collected) prompt Britain to repeal it in 1766. Parliament passes the Declaratory Act –Claims “absolute authority” over the colonies and the right to pass any laws. –Thus, crisis passes, but the issue of power remains.
More Taxes Townshend Duties –Import duties = indirect tax –On glass, paint, lead, and tea –Colonists upset by Tax on tea –1 million tea drinkers in the colonies! Duties will pay salaries of royal officials –Takes away the “power of the purse” – legislatures paid governors and judges, therefore had power over them. –Reaction: Non-importation (boycott) Smuggled tea is common Britain sends troops to Boston
Boston “Massacre” -- March 1770 –Mob of 60 colonists v. 10 soldiers –11 colonists killed and wounded –Paul Revere’s engraving -- propaganda –John Adams = defense attorney for soldiers Repeal of Townshend Duties –Collects £295 but costs £170,000 to administrate –Repeal all duties except tea tax.
Uniting the Colonies Committees of Correspondence –Committees that encourage communication between the colonies. –Started by Samuel Adams in 1772 Called the “penman of the revolution” British call him “the foulest, subtlest, and most venomous serpent ever issued from the egg of sedition.” –Keeps colonies informed and response unified.
The Final Steps Towards Rebellion Tea Act, 1773 –An attempt to save the British East India Co. from bankruptcy. –Allows BEICO to import tea directly to the colonies. –Merchants protest with tea parties. –Boston Tea Party, Dec. 1773 British Response –The Coercive Acts (aka the “Intolerable Acts) Close Boston Harbor Suspends the Massachusetts legislature Establishes martial law under General Gates –An overreaction & miscalculation –An attempt to isolate Massachusetts, but instead unites the colonies.