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Direct Instruction Also called explicit instruction Widely applicable strategy that can be used to teach both concepts and skills Uses teacher explanation and modeling combined with student practice and feedback

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Teacher Role Specifies learning objectives procedural skills; automaticity; transfer Explains and illustrates content Models skills

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Student Role Active in responding to teacher questions Analyzing examples Practicing skills to mastery

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Theoretical Foundations Teacher effectiveness research Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura) effectiveness of modeling on learning skills The influence of interaction on learning (Vygotsky)

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Teacher Effectiveness Research Teachers can increase student achievement by Using time well Presenting high quality examples Using clear language Providing effective feedback Questioning students

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Direct Instruction Defined DI is academically focused, teacher- directed instruction that uses sequenced and structured materials Goals are clear to students Coverage of content is extensive Performance of students is monitored Feedback is immediate

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Characteristics of Direct Instruction Reviewing the previous day’s work Presenting new material in clear and logical steps Providing guided practice Giving feedback with correctives Providing independent practice Reviewing to consolidate learning

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Social Cognitive Theory Bandura (1989, 1997) Learning by observing the behavior of others Central to theory is MODELING of the desired behavior for students Direct Instruction incorporates the benefits of modeling into lesson design

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Social Cognitive Theory Vygotsky (1978) Verbal interaction (language) helps students learn Direct Instruction is effective because it adopted two concepts from the work of Vygotsky

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Social Cognitive Theory Cont. First concept--SCAFFOLDING Scaffolding is the instructional support teachers provide as students learn Breaking skills into subskills Asking questions, with increasing difficulty level Modeling the steps Presenting examples Providing prompts and cues

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Social Cognitive Theory Cont. Second concept--ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD) State of learning in which a student cannot solve a problem or perform a skill alone and needs the help of a teacher Outside of ZPD, students either don’t need any help or lack the prerequisite skills or background knowledge

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Planning Lessons using DI Four steps Identifying topics (concepts and procedural skills Specifying objectives (automaticity and transfer) Identifying prerequisite knowledge Selecting problems and examples

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Implementing Lessons with DI Phase 1: Introduction and review Students are drawn into the lesson Teacher attracts students’ attention Teacher activates background knowledge through a thorough review of prerequisite knowledge or skills

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Implementing Lessons with DI Phase 2: Presentation New content is presented and explained Teacher begins schema production by explaining and illustrating the concept or explaining and modeling the skill being taught Teacher promotes involvement by modeling, providing examples, and actively questioning students to guide their understanding

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Implementing Lessons with DI Phase 3--Guided practice Students practice the concept or skill under the teacher’s guidance with high levels of interaction Teacher helps students develop perceptions of competence Teacher ensures success Teacher monitors progress Role of teacher changes. Teacher moves from information provider and modeler to COACH, withdrawing instructional support as students master skill.

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Implementing Lessons with DI Phase 4--Independent practice Students practice using the concept or skill on their own Students develop automaticity Students develop the ability to transfer their understanding to new contexts Two stages: (1) students practice on their own under teacher supervision and (2) students work on their own on a homework assignment

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Increasing Motivation with DI The guided practice of DI develops perceptions of competence. Perception of competence is highly motivating. As students become more competent in using the concept or skill, they equate their hard work with success.

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Applications of DI Direct Instruction can be used to teach generalizations, principles and rules. (We will discuss generalization, principles and rules later in the semester)

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DI and Diverse Learners DI has been shown to be especially effective with learners from diverse backgrounds Explicit approach to teaching (with modeling) Interactive nature, constant monitoring Structured approach, extensive practice All contribute to greater success for diverse learners

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