Presentation on theme: "Scaffolding Students’ Comprehension of Text Article written by Kathleen F. Clark & Michael F. Graves Summarized by Kristine Barrett."— Presentation transcript:
Scaffolding Students’ Comprehension of Text Article written by Kathleen F. Clark & Michael F. Graves Summarized by Kristine Barrett
Scaffolding The scaffolding of a building under construction provides support when the new building cannot stand on its own. As the new structure is completed and becomes freestanding, the scaffolding is removed. So it is with scaffolded adult-child academic interactions. The adult carefully monitors when enough instructional input has been provided to permit the child to make progress toward an academic goal, and thus the adult provides support only when the child needs it. If the child catches on quickly, the adult’s responsive instruction will be less detailed than if the child experiences difficulties with the task. M. Pressley
Why use scaffolding? Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development Pearson and Fielding’s release of responsibility model
Inductive form of instruction It teaches students how to find and organize information, create and test hypotheses that describe relationships among data sets. (Joyce & Weil)
Forms of Scaffolding Instruction Moment-to-moment scaffolding Instructional frameworks –Questioning the Author –Scaffolded Reading Experience Instructional procedures –Direct Explanation of Comprehension Strategies –Reciprocal Teaching
Moment-to Moment Verbal Scaffolding Use of a variety of questioning techniques –Prompt –Probe –Help explain answers more in-depth Knowledge of how to ask questions without giving answers Give meaning and purpose to questions Must remain very aware of students’ abilities
Instructional Frameworks Questioning the Author Questioning the Author Use for reading individual texts Use for reading individual texts Used to understand, interpret, and elaborate on author’s meaning Used to understand, interpret, and elaborate on author’s meaning Open-ended questioning techniques instead of story element questions Open-ended questioning techniques instead of story element questions A variety of responses is desired from questions A variety of responses is desired from questions Designed by I.L. Beck, M.G. McKeown, J. Worthy, C.A. Sandora, and L. Kucan Designed by I.L. Beck, M.G. McKeown, J. Worthy, C.A. Sandora, and L. Kucan Scaffolding Reading Response (2 phases) Planning Phase in which the teacher must consider: The students who are reading The reading selection The purpose for reading Implementation Phase Pre-reading activities During-reading activities Post-reading activities These activities are designed to guide the students to meet the purposes set in the planning phase. Designed by M.F. Graves & B.B. Graves
Instructional procedures for teaching reading comprehension strategies Direct Explanation of Comprehension Strategies Reciprocal Teaching
Direct Explanation of Comprehension Strategies The teacher… Clearly explains strategy How it is to be used When it is to be used Models the strategy Provides opportunities for student modeling
Reciprocal Teaching Teaches four comprehension strategies: 1.Questioning 2.Summarizing 3.Clarifying 4.Predicting The strategies are directly taught and modeled. The strategies are designed to teach understanding of the purposes of reading, activating prior knowledge, focusing attention on important content, critically evaluating text, monitoring comprehension, and drawing & testing inferences.
The teacher’s role is to provide the students with enough instruction and guidance as long as necessary. That instruction and guidance will continually change as the students develop their own skills and strategies, which will enable them to become independent learners and thinkers.
Final Thoughts Very well written Provides useful insights into reading instruction Explained in easy to understand ways Background information is provided Constructivist elements are provided –Scaffolding, zone of proximal development, Reciprocal Teaching, and the gradual release of responsibility model Definite instructions for use in the classroom –Allows students to grow into creative thinkers who are able to take learning into their own hands. –Each form builds on the other ones so students will continually use them in comprehending any type of material. –Students will begin to see the connections to all subject areas instead of just during “reading time”.
Each form of scaffolding instruction requires students to think for themselves. Teachers model strategies. Collaboration between students is encouraged. Examples are given from a variety of levels of education Authors quote directly from classroom discussions so readers can “see” the form at work. This is a real-world article, which would allow me to take the knowledge gained from it and begin using it immediately within my own classroom.
Scaffolding “is a highly flexible and adaptable model of instruction that supports students as they acquire basic skills and higher order thinking processes, allows for explicit instruction within authentic contexts of reading and writing, and enables teachers to differentiate instruction for students of diverse needs” (Clark & Graves, 2005, p.579).