3When Learning Isn’t Occurring Classrooms do not use scaffolding to ensure success.
4When Learning Isn’t Occurring Students are asked to learn independently day after day.
5When Learning Isn’t Occurring Teacher models and then meets with small groups of students, but they are required to complete independent tasks while waiting their turn to meet. (the collaborative learning phase is missing)
6Best Teaching Occurs when a Model of Explicit Instruction is Followed.
7Model Of Explicit Instruction Gradual Release of Responsibility ModelStudentModelingTeacher’s gradual release of responsibilityIndependenceTeacherGuided PracticeSpires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983
9Dependent LearningDirect Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition.Must consists of a Focused Lesson
10Focused LessonClearly establishes a purpose and models their own thinking.Provides students with information about the ways in which a skilled reader, writer, or thinker processes information.Almost always done with the whole class and typically last around 15 minutes (depending on the age group)
11Clearly establishing a purpose: A clear, general statement of learner outcomes,Related to an identified problem and needs assessmentAchievable through instruction
12What to Look For The teacher establishes the purpose for the lesson. Both content and language goals are established.The teacher uses “I” statements to model thinking.Questioning is used to scaffold instruction, not to interrogate students.The lesson includes a decision frame for when to use the skill or strategy.The lesson builds metacognitive awareness, especially indicators of successFocus lessons move to guided instruction, not immediately to independent learning
13Shared Learning Dependent Learning Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition.Shared LearningGuided Instruction and tasks that require joint intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case studies, group projects, numbered heads together, etc.
14Shared Learning: Two Parts Guided InstructionAlmost always done with small, purposeful groups, which are composed based on students’ performance on formative assessments.Consist of students who share a common instructional need that the teacher can address.Ideal time to differentiate based on needs
15What to Look For Small-group arrangements are evident. Grouping changes throughout the semester.The teacher plays an active role in guided instruction, not just circulating and assisting individual students.A dialogue occurs between students and the teacher as they begin to apply the skill or strategy.The teacher uses cues and prompts to scaffold understanding when a student makes an error an does not immediately tell the student the correct answer.
16Shared Learning: Two Parts 1. Guided Instruction2. Collaborative LearningKey is the requirement for independent products from the group collaboration.It is not the time to introduce new information to students.Should be a time for students to apply information in novel situations or to engage in a spiral review of previous knowledge.Critical to the success of the gradual release of responsibility model of instructionThese two may be going on simultaneously.
17What to Look For Small-group arrangements are evident. Grouping changes throughout the semester.The teacher has modeled concepts that students need to complete collaborative tasks.Students have received guided instruction of the concepts needed to complete collaborative tasks.
18Independent Learning Dependent Learning Shared Learning Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition.Shared LearningGuided Instruction and tasks that require joint intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case studies, group projects, numbered heads together, etc.Independent LearningTasks that are meaningful, experiential, and relevant, which the student completes on his or her own.
19Independent LearningStudents should not be asked to do unfamiliar tasks - tasks for which they have not had instruction - independently.Too many students are asked to complete independent tasks in the absence of good instruction.
20What to Look ForStudents have received focus lessons, guided instruction, and collaborative learning experiences related to concepts needed to complete independent tasks.Independent tasks extend beyond practice to application and extension of new knowledge.The teacher meets with individual students for conferencing about the independent learning tasks.
21Complete ModelFocus Lessons: Establishing the lesson’s purpose and then modeling your own thinking for students.Guided Instruction: Strategically using prompts, cues, and questions to facilitate students’ increased responsibility for task completion.Collaborative Learning: Enabling students to discuss and negotiate with one another to create independent work, not simply one project.Independent Tasks: Requiring students to use their previous knowledge to create new and authentic products.
25Power of Feedback Double-barreled approach Address cognitive factors Address motivational factorsGood feedback gives students information they need so they can understand where they are in their learning and what to do next - the cognitive factor. Once they understand what to do and why, most students develop a feeling that they have control over their own learning - the motivational factor.
26Good Feedback Contains information that a student can use. Is a part of a classroom assessment environment in which students see constructive criticism as a good thing and understand that learning cannot occur without practice.Which means the student has to be able to hear and understand it. Students can’t hear something that’s beyond their comprehension; nor can they hear something if they are not listening or are feeling like it would be useless to listen. The nature of the feedback and the context in which it is given matter a great deal.If the classroom culture values finding and using suggestions for improvement, students will be able to use feedback, plan and execute steps for improvement. It is not fair to tudents to present them with feedback and no opportunitites to use it.
27Four Levels of Feedback Feedback about the taskInformation about errorsInformation about the depth or quality of the workInformation about neatness or formatMay include a need for more informationFound to be more powerful when it corrects misconceptions
28Four Levels of Feedback Feedback about the processing of the taskInformation about how they approached the taskInformation about the relationship between what they did and the quality of their performanceInformation about possible alternative strategies that would also be useful
29Four Levels of Feedback Feedback about self-regulationEffective to the degree that it enhances self-efficacy.Effective learners create internal routinesLess effective learners depend more on external factorsStudents are more willing to expend effort in getting and dealing with feedback if they have confidence in themselves as learners and confidence that the information will be useful and thus worth the effort.
30Four Levels of Feedback Feedback about the self as a personNot a good idea (example: Smart girl!)Doesn’t contain information that can be used for further learningContributes to students believing that intelligence is fixedFeedback about the processes students use to do their work fosters the belief that achievement is related to specific strategies, specific kinds of effort that are under the student’s control, and not to innate ability.Feedback about processes shows students the connections between what they did and the results they got.
31How to Give FeedbackPoint out improvements over the student’s own last performance.Select one or two small,doable next steps for the student; after the next round of work, give feedback on the success with those steps, and so on.Give students lots of opportunities to practice and receive feedback without a grade being involved.Make the feedback observational. Describe what you see. How close is it to the learning target? What do you think would help.