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Spires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983 Modeling Teacher Student Independence Guided Practice Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Model.

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Presentation on theme: "Spires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983 Modeling Teacher Student Independence Guided Practice Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983 Modeling Teacher Student Independence Guided Practice Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Model Of Explicit Instruction Teacher’s gradual release of responsibility

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3 Dependent Learning Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition. Must consists of a Focused Lesson

4 Focused Lesson  Clearly establish a purpose and model their own thinking.  Provide students with information about the ways in which a skilled reader, writer, or thinker processes information.  Almost always done with the whole class and typically last around 15 minutes (depending on the age group)

5 Clearly establishing a purpose: 1.A clear, general statement of learner outcomes, 2.Related to an identified problem and needs assessment 3.Achievable through instruction

6 What to Look For  The teacher establishes the purpose for the lesson.  Both content and language goals are established.  The teacher uses “I” statements to model thinking.  Questioning is used to scaffold instruction, not to interrogate students.  The lesson includes a decision frame for when to use the skill or strategy.  The lesson builds metacognitive awareness, especially indicators of success  Focus lessons move to guided instruction, not immediately to independent learning

7 Dependent Learning Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition. Shared Learning Guided Instruction and tasks that require joint intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case studies, group projects, numbered heads together, etc.

8 Shared Learning: Two Parts 1.Guided Instruction Almost always done with small, purposeful groups, which are composed based on students’ performance on formative assessments. Consist of students who share a common instructional need that the teacher can address. Ideal time to differentiate based on needs

9 What to Look For  Small-group arrangements are evident.  Grouping changes throughout the semester.  The teacher plays an active role in guided instruction, not just circulating and assisting individual students.  A dialogue occurs between students and the teacher as they begin to apply the skill or strategy.  The teacher uses cues and prompts to scaffold understanding when a student makes an error an does not immediately tell the student the correct answer.

10 Shared Learning: Two Parts 1. Guided Instruction 2. Collaborative Learning Key is the requirement for independent products from the group collaboration. It is not the time to introduce new information to students. Should be a time for students to apply information in novel situations or to engage in a spiral review of previous knowledge. Critical to the success of the gradual release of responsibility model of instruction

11 What to Look For  Small-group arrangements are evident.  Grouping changes throughout the semester.  The teacher has modeled concepts that students need to complete collaborative tasks.  Students have received guided instruction of the concepts needed to complete collaborative tasks.

12 Dependent Learning Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition. Shared Learning Guided Instruction and tasks that require joint intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case studies, group projects, numbered heads together, etc. Independent Learning Tasks that are meaningful, experiential, and relevant, which the student completes on his or her own.

13 Independent Learning  Students should not be asked to do unfamiliar tasks - tasks for which they have not had instruction - independently.  Too many students are asked to complete independent tasks in the absence of good instruction.

14 What to Look For  Students have received focus lessons, guided instruction, and collaborative learning experiences related to concepts needed to complete independent tasks.  Independent tasks extend beyond practice to application and extension of new knowledge.  The teacher meets with individual students for conferencing about the independent learning tasks.

15 Complete Model  Focus Lessons: Establishing the lesson’s purpose and then modeling your own thinking for students.  Guided Instruction: Strategically using prompts, cues, and questions to facilitate students’ increased responsibility for task completion.  Collaborative Learning: Enabling students to discuss and negotiate with one another to create independent work, not simply one project.  Independent Tasks: Requiring students to use their previous knowledge to create new and authentic products.

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17 This instructional model is intentional, purposeful, and explicit.


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