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Explicit Instruction Sixteen elements of Explicit Instruction By Anita Archer & Charles Hughes.

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Presentation on theme: "Explicit Instruction Sixteen elements of Explicit Instruction By Anita Archer & Charles Hughes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Explicit Instruction Sixteen elements of Explicit Instruction By Anita Archer & Charles Hughes

2 Explicit Instruction/Teaching Versus Direct Instruction What is the difference?

3 D.I Teacher directed Structured explicit, clear Emphasizes teacher’s role in maximizing academic learning time. Learner Centred Approaches Learner centred Discovery Oriented Emphasizes learner’s role in constructing learning. Teacher a s a facilitator or guide. Tailored toward learners who are independent and self –directed. E. I Teacher structures and directs the learning process. Structured, clear, explicit Emphasizes teacher’s role in maximizing academic learning time and the learner’s role in actively constructing learning. Conceived for use in in inclusive classrooms. Instruction as usual = planning for and teaching all students. Accommodations for diverse learners are integrated into the framework. Explicit Instruction as an Alternative

4  Teach:  Skills  Strategies  vocabulary terms  Concepts  rules that will empower students in the future and match the students instructional needs.  Investigations embed all the skills and strategies they have learnt explicitly 1. Focus instruction on critical content

5  Teach easier skills before harder skills  Teach high frequency skills before skills that are less frequent in usage  Ensure mastery of prerequisites to a skill before teaching the skill itself.  Separate skills and strategies that are similar and thus may be confusing to students 2. Sequence skills logically

6  Teach in small steps  By segmenting complex skills into smaller instructional units of new material you will be addressing:  Cognitive overload  Information processing demands  Capacity of students’ working memory  Once each step is mastered it is important to then synthesise the units. (Teach as a whole skill/concept) 3. Break down complex skills and strategies into smaller instructional units

7  Make sure lessons are organised and focused in order to make optimal use of instruction time.  Organised lessons are:  on topic  well sequenced  contain no irrelevant digressions. 4. Design organised and focused lesson

8  Tell students clearly:  what is to be learnt – they achieve better if they understand the instructional goals and outcomes expected  why it is important – they are more likely to be more motivated if they are told how the information or skill presented will help them. 5. Begin lessons with a clear statement of the lessons goals and your expectations

9  Provide a review of relevant information.  Verify that students have the prerequisite skills and knowledge to learn the skill being taught.  Provide an opportunity to link the new skill with other related skills 6. Review prior skills and knowledge before beginning instruction

10  Model the skill  Clarify the thinking processes needed to complete a task or procedure by thinking aloud as you perform the skill.  Clearly demonstrate the target skill or strategy in order to show students a model of proficient performance. 7. Provide step by step demonstrations

11  Use consistent, unambiguous wording and terminology  The complexity of the language you use should depend on the students’ receptive vocabulary ability level.  When selecting appropriate vocabulary for explicit vocabulary instruction you need to:  Select words that are unknown  Select words that are important for the student to understand the passage/ unit/ skill/ concept  Select words that students will hear, read, write and say in the future  Select words that are difficult to learn and need interpretation  8. Use clear and concise language

12  In order to establish the boundaries of when and when not to apply a skill/strategy/concept/rule, provide a wide range of examples and non- examples  A wide range of examples illustrates situations when the skill will be used or applied  Presenting a range of non- examples reduces the possibility that students will use the skill inappropriately 9. Provide an adequate range of examples and non- examples

13  To promote initial success and build confidence, regulate the difficulty of practice opportunities during the lesson.  Provide students with guidance while they are demonstrating the skill.  When students demonstrate success, you can gradually increase task difficulty/complexity as you decrease the level of guidance you are providing Reading Comprehension- year 3:-  10. Provide guided and supported practice


15  Plan for a high level of student – teacher interaction via the use of questioning  Have the students respond frequently – kinaesthetically (actions), orally (words) or in writing  This will :  Allow students to interact through their learning style  Help them focus on the lesson content  Provide opportunities for student elaboration  Assist you in checking for understanding  Keep the students active and attentive. 11. Require frequent responses

16  By carefully watching and listening to student responses you can:  Verify the students’ mastery of the skill  Make timely adjustments in your instructions if the students are making mistakes  Provide clear and concise feedback about how well they are doing 12. Monitor student performance closely

17  1. Describe how you would provide guided and supportive practice in a reading or maths lesson.  2. Brainstorm ways that you could get the class as a whole to respond orally and kinaesthetically in a literacy or a numeracy lesson.  3. What timely adjustments in your instructions would you make if you observed that the students are making mistakes. Concentric Circles

18  Follow up on students’ responses as quickly as you can  Immediate feedback to students about the accuracy of their responses helps ensure high rates of success and reduces the likelihood of practicing errors  SLANT (Sit up, Listen, Ask/Answer, Nod, Track Teacher)   13. Provide immediate affirmative and corrective feedback

19  Deliver instruction at an appropriate pace to optimise:  Instruction time  The amount of content that can be presented  On-task behaviour  The rate of presentation needs to be brisk but include a reasonable amount of time for the students’ thinking/processing especially when they are learning something new.  The desired pace should be neither so slow that the students get bored nor so quick that they can’t keep up 14. Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace

20  As students can have difficulty seeing how some concepts and skills fit together, you need to use teaching techniques that make these connections more apparent or explicit.  Well organised and connected information makes it easier for students to retrieve information and facilitate its integration with new material 15. Help students organise knowledge

21  1. Name affirmative feedback responses and corrective feedback responses you would use in your classroom.  2. Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace- what does this mean?  3. What would teaching techniques that make connections between skills/concepts more apparent or explicit look like?  4. How would you review prior skills and knowledge before beginning instruction?  5. Name one explicit instruction element that is really important for an effective teacher to use.  6. Name one explicit instruction element that you have found has not been used by some teachers effectively. Silent shuffle

22  Distributed practice refers to providing multiple opportunities to practise a skill over time  Cumulative practice refers to providing practise opportunities that address both previously and newly acquired skills.  By providing students with multiple practise attempts they are more likely to retain the skill as well as be able to do it automatically. (cognitive/ associative task) 16. Provide distribute and cumulative practice

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