2 Common Board Configuration (CBC) DATE: June 10, 2013VOCABULARY: introduction; guided practice; collaborative practice; independent practice; scaffolding; recursive; modeling; think-aloud; gradual release of responsibility; progress monitoring; corrective feedbackEXIT SLIP: 3-2-1List three things that explicit instruction is.List two things that explicit instruction is not.List the one component of explicit instruction that you still have questions about.BELL RINGER:“Do’s and Won’ts”AGENDA:I Do: facilitate and model the characteristics of explicit teaching utilizing a power point presentation and relevant activities.We Do: read and respond to the “Sixteen Elements” of explicit instruction.They Do: collaboratively provide examples of select components of the explicit instruction model.You Do: Reflect on teacher practice and student engagement in a video setting.OBJECTIVE: To provide information on how to plan and conduct lessons on which literacy skills are explained, demonstrated, and taught using explicit instruction.HIGHER ORDER QUESTIONS:How will I ensure that teachers successfully incorporate collaborative strategies during group work?HOME LEARNING:Utilizing the ELA Common Core Standards for your grade level, develop an explicit lesson.BENCHMARK:Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of explicit instruction .ESSENTIAL QUESTION: How can the consistent use of systematic explicit instructional techniques enhance students’ learning?
3 “Do’s and Won’ts”List two best practices and/or instructional strategies that were effective this year. Briefly explain.List one practice and/or instructional strategy that was ineffective this year. Briefly explain.
4 At the end of this training session, you will be able to: ObjectivesAt the end of this training session, you will be able to:state a definition of explicit instructionlist the components of explicit instructionprovide examples for each of the componentsSay: There are three main objectives for this training session
5 “Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn –Benjamin FranklinSay: What is the best way for students to learn? And how will learning occur? Here is a quote from Benjamin Franklin (Read quote). It tells us that engaging students in learning is one of the most important aspects of teaching.
6 Explicit Instruction: Why Embrace It? Research supports that explicit instruction is more effective and efficient, especially for struggling students, including those with disabilitiesExplicit instruction is instruction that does not leave anything to chance, and it does not make assumptions about skills and knowledge that children will acquire “on their own.”Through explicit and systematic teaching, teachers can actually help “rewire” the brains of struggling readers and help them overcome reading problems.Chall, The Academic Challenge: What Really Works in theClassroomStruggling readers need instruction that is more explicit and comprehensive than what is typically provided. Because some struggling readers may have difficulties in the area of phonological processing (detecting, segmenting, blending, and/or manipulating the sounds in spoken language), instruction needs to focus on helping them acquire phonemic awareness skills and knowledge of how these sounds map to print.Explicit reading instruction contains “the knowledge and skills required for learning to read words accurately and fluently,” and is “balanced and integratedwith explicit instruction in other language and reading skills that are also important for good reading comprehension” (Foorman & Torgesen, 2001, p.209).Reading instruction needs to include “explicit instruction in comprehension strategies, vocabulary, and thinking skills” (Foorman & Torgesen, 2001, p. 208).
9 Read Like a Detective!Read the Sixteen Elements of Explicit Instruction.With your table group, select the elements that are directly related to the component you were assigned (Planning, I Do, etc.).After a brief discussion, use the attached worksheet to record its’ instructional impact on teaching and learning; describe what your component looks and sounds like in action.
10 Explicit Instruction = Effective Instruction an unambiguous and direct approach that supports or scaffolds learningEffective:research based proven strategiesDesign and Delivery ComponentsEfficient:maximizes learning in the shortest amount of timeExplicit instruction is teacher-led instruction that is organized and structured to help students clearly understand new information and concepts.Explicit instruction follows a systematic routine that includes clear, specific, easy-to-follow procedures. It includes frequent and cumulative reviews ofpreviously taught material. Most importantly, instruction is organized so that all students succeed. Teacher modeling, thinking aloud, and working collaboratively with students are all techniques that assist struggling readers.
11 Essential Components to EI Instructional Delivery ComponentsFrequent Student ResponsesAppropriate PacingProvide Adequate Processing TimeMonitor ResponsesCorrective FeedbackEmpirical evidence suggests all students in general, and diverse learners in particular, benefit from having good strategies made conspicuous for them. This paired with great care taken to ensure the strategies are well-designed result in widely transferable knowledge of their application.This temporary support/guidance is provided to students in the form of steps, tasks, materials, and personal support during initial learning that reduces the task complexity by structuring it into manageable chunks to increase successful task completion. The degree of scaffolding changes with the abilities of the learner, the goals of instruction, and the complexities of the task. Gradual and planful removal of the scaffolds occurs as the learner becomes more successful and independent at task completion. Thus , the purpose of scaffolding is to allow all students to become successful in independent activities.Acquisition of new skills and knowledge depends largely upon: a ) The knowledge the learner brings to the task. b ) The accuracy of that information . c ) The degree to which the learner can access and use that information . Priming background knowledge is designed to strategically cultivate success by addressing the memory and strategy deficits learners may bring to the new task. The function of priming background knowledge is to increase the likelihood students will be successful working with new tasks by making explicit each critical feature that motivate learners to access knowledge they already have in place.(Hall, 2002)
12 Frequent Student Responses Let’s Think About It…When students actively participate in their learning, they achieve greater success.The teacher must elicit student responses several times per minute, for example ask students to say, write, or do something. Highly interactive instructional procedures keep students actively engaged, provide students with adequate practice, and help them achieve greater success.Frequent Student ResponsesWhen students actively participate in their learning, they achieve greater success . The teacher must elicit student responses several times during each lesson; for example, ask students to say, write, or do something . Highly interactive instructional procedures keep students actively engaged, provide students with adequate practice, and help them achieve greater success.
13 Let’s Think About It…The pace of instruction is influenced by many variables such as task complexity or difficulty, relative newness of the task, and individual student differences.When tasks are presented at a brisk pace, three benefits to instruction are accomplished: (a) students are provided with more information, (b) students are engaged in the instructional activity, and (c) behavior problems are minimized (students stay on‐task when instruction is appropriately paced).Appropriate PacingPacing is an important factor influencing student learning and a brisk pace is way of increasing interaction. Pacing refers to the speed with which teachers move students through material to be learned.Effective teachers move students briskly from step to step, keeping the steps small and easily attainable. Depending on student responses we may adjust the modeling and prompts we give students.Pacing involves teaching from step to step within an exercise as well as transitioning from exercise to exercise – transitions should not rob from instructional time. We want to maintain momentum and energy.Pacing also includes moving briskly between tasks in a lesson. That way students stay interested, involved, and have more opportunities to respond. We can make our instruction more intense by making it more interactive by creating multiple opportunities to respond. We can incorporate more choral responses giving more students a chance to interact. Good pacing does not mean rushing children. Children must have sufficient time to figure out answers. Once children respond, the teacher either immediately corrects or moves on to a new task. Students stay involved.
14 Provide Adequate Processing Time Let’s Think About It…Think time (adequate processing time) is the amount of time between the moment a task is presented and when the learner is asked to respond.Time to pause and think should vary based on the difficulty of the task relative to the student(s). If a task is relatively new, the amount of time allocated to think and formulate a response should be greater than that of a task that is familiar and in the learners' repertoire.Provide Adequate Processing Time
15 Let’s Think About It…This is an essential teacher skill to ensure that all learners are mastering the skills the teacher is presenting. Watching and listening to student responses provides the teacher with key instructional information.Adjustments may be made during instruction. Teachers should be constantly scanning the classroom as students respond in any mode.Monitor Responses
16 Let’s Think About It…Students should receive immediate feedback to both correct and incorrect responses.Corrective feedback needs to be instructional and not accommodating.Feedback to reinforce correct responses should be specific. Feedback should not interfere with the timing of the next question/response interaction of the teacher and student.Feedback that does not meet these criteria can interrupt the instructional episode and disrupt the learner's ability to recall.Corrective Feedback
17 Effective Instruction Steps ClosureCorrective feedbackIndependentpracticeGuided practiceModeling/demonstrationSay: Carnine (1997) recommends that teachers should make the different steps needed for a given task as overt and explicit as possible. Informed instruction includes seven steps: fully developed learning objective, opening instructional routine, clear explanations and directions, modeling and demonstration, adequate guided practice and independent practice, corrective feedback, and closure. Click to reveal next slide.Explanations and directionsOpening instructional routine(Carnine, 1997)Learning objective
18 Implementing Lessons with EI Phase 1:Introduction and ReviewStudents are drawn into the lessonTeacher attracts students’ attentionTeacher activates background knowledge through a thorough review of prerequisite knowledge or skills
19 Implementing Lessons with EI Phase 2:I DO (Modeled Instruction)New content is presented and explainedTeacher begins schema production by explaining and illustrating the concept or thinking aloud and modeling the skill being taughtTeacher promotes involvement by modeling, providing examples, and actively questioning students to guide their understanding
20 Implementing Lessons with EI Phase 3Guided Practice (We Do /They Do)Students practice the concept or skill under the teacher’s guidance with high levels of interactionTeacher helps students develop perceptions of competenceTeacher ensures successTeacher monitors progressRole of teacher changes. Teacher moves from information provider and modeler to COACH, withdrawing instructional support as students master skill.This is a simple model of learning. Pianists must have immediate recognition of the notes on a page, they have to learn finger position, phrasing, and articulation before they can play a piece of music fluently. The same is true for readers.When acquiring a skill, you first work for accuracy. Once the student can accurately perform the skill, then you work to develop fluency with the skill simply by providing tasks on which the student can practice performing the skill correctly a number of times.Fluency is accuracy and speed. If you are fast and inaccurate, you are not fluent. If you are accurate and slow, you are not fluent.Once you are fluent at a skill, you need to keep practicing that skill or you will lose it.Establishing fluency is critical for a skill to be maintained. If students are not at a certain level of fluency before summer they are much more likely to lose ground by fall.
21 Increasing Motivation with EI The guided practice of EI develops perceptions of competence. Perception of competence is highly motivating.As students become more competent in using the concept or skill, they equate their hard work with success.
22 Implementing Lessons with EI Phase 4Independent Practice (You Do)Students practice using the concept or skill on their ownStudents develop automaticityStudents develop the ability to transfer their understanding to new contextsTwo stages: (1) students practice on their own under teacher supervision and (2) students work completely on their own
24 Lesson Delivery Student Engagement As you watch the video, use the T-chart to reflect on the lesson delivery and the students’ engagement.Lesson DeliveryStudent EngagementWhile considering the effect the teacher behavior has on the student’s behavior, consider if the students are actively engaged and whether or not the teacher is engaged in good teaching practices.
29 ETO TemplateDiscuss the process aloud as you are doing it. “This is what I do first, next, etc…..I will show you how to…This is how I remember what I'm reading…This is what I thought…I say to myself…Do you see how I talk to myself as I read?I knew right here (point to text) that…As I was reading I realized…As I was reading I wondered…Now that I've read, I realize…Now that I've read, I understand…The secret to this is…Before you read on your own, let me show you how I…Direct Definition and reason this is an important skill.Today we are going to learn about…The reason we are going to learn about…This is important because…The strategy we are going to learn about is called: This means:By the end of the lesson, you will be able to…State Learning Target / Lesson ObjectiveActivate prior knowledge students may have about new learning or make a connection to previously taught skill/concept/strategy.Use think alouds and make new learning as visible as possible (e.g., use of manipulatives, graphic organizers, pictures, smart boards for websites, overheads, etc...).• Provide examples and non-examples of skills, when possible.• Break concepts or skills into manageable steps.
30 ETO TemplateHow can students practice (e.g., teacher/students, students/students) the concept while the teacher monitors their understanding?Now let’s practice together, remember I did it like this, you try it, what was the next step……We will read this together and I expect you to…Practice skills or manipulate new concepts with students.• Engage all students actively (e.g., response cards, white boards, manipulatives, hands on activities, classroom performance systems (CPS), etc...).• Move from whole group guided practice to small groups and pairs before independent practice.• Provide specific feedback.• Differentiate to meet the needs of all learners.Students practice together and engage in student accountable talk
31 ETO TemplateNow you do it and I will watch you, remember the steps we used to……. While the students are doing this circulate and immediately give feedback and correct mistakes.VERY IMPORTANT: Make the relevant connections. Discuss why this is an important skill. Why do they need to know it and where they might apply this skill.Provide various opportunities to practice new knowledge – small group, partners, individually.CLOSURE:Review the Learning Target / Lesson Objective. Summarize how/why the new learning applies to real life.
32 3-2-1…EXIT List three things that explicit instruction is. List two things that explicit instruction is not.List the one component of explicit instruction that you still have questions about.
33 HOME LEARNINGUtilizing the ELA CCSS for your grade level, develop an explicit lesson.