Presentation on theme: "Sea Power and Maritime Affairs"— Presentation transcript:
1Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.9: U.S. Naval Strategyand National Policy,
2Enabling ObjectivesEXPLAIN the principal points of the Treaty of Versailles and the main shortcomings of the League of Nations.EXPLAIN the treaties resulting from the Washington Naval conference and subsequent changes in naval technology and strategy.EXPLAIN the relationship between international affairs and national defense goals in the context of sea.EXPLAIN ways in which changes in American society affected foreign policy and the development and employment of the U.S. Navy during this period.
3Post WWI - U.S. Navy, 1919-1941 U.S. Navy stronger after WW I Focused on Mahanian principles of fleet annihilationMajor naval building program beginsNaval Act of 1916 continued and expanded-35 capital shipsEmphasis on capital shipsNeed for a large fleet to protect both coastsConstruction planned to rival and eclipse the Royal Navy
4A “Return to Normalcy”1920: American people need a “Return to Normalcy”President Warren G. HardingDoes not support a Navy “second to none”Republican Congress supports disarmamentDetermined to cut military spending after WW I(Stress the relation between foreign policy and naval policy.)When Brit rejects freedom of the seas, Wilson asks for a large bldg. Programholds larger Am fleet over Brits to get them to support the League of Nationsbut - bldg program rejected by congress and League rejected by Senate4
5Washington Naval Conference (1921-22) 5 Power Naval Limitations TreatyImmediate 10-year “Holiday” on construction of new capital shipsU.S. would scrap 26 battleships totaling 693,520 tons!U.S., Britain, Japan, France, ItalyCapital ship tonnage ratio ofNo capital ship over 35K tonsSecretary of State Charles Evans Hughes5
7The Navy Suffers 1924 - Congress authorizes eight cruisers President Coolidge suspends funds for all but two of the cruisersPresident Hoover builds zero combatantsUSS Lexington (CV-2)Cascading economic problems leading to Great Depression
8Navy Hopes For Change 1933 - Roosevelt becomes President Recognized deteriorating international situationFavored naval buildupEarmarked $238M for Navy.Yorktown and Enterprise keels laid: Naval funding increases to 1 billionNew naval bases and air stations are built.8
9USS Ranger (CV 4)USS Ranger becomes the 4th U.S. air craft carrier and the first U.S. air craft carrier built from the keel up to be an actual air craft carrier.
10U.S. Fleet Status - 1937 Submarines: 40% below wartime strength. Battleships - Capital ships of the fleetManningNavy officers and enlisted: 113,617Marine officers and enlisted: 18,223 = 1/3 of desired strengthSubmarines: 40% below wartime strength.Fleet Status:Battleships: Aircraft Carriers: 3Heavy cruisers: Light cruisers: 10Destroyers: 196 (162 overage) Subs: 81 ( over-aged)Evaluation of the Navy’s ability to carry out its mission in terms of strategic plans (1939)1. Enough capital ships for an offensive in the Atlantic and a defensive in the Pacific2. Insufficient number of aircraft carriers3. Barely sufficient cruisers to screen the battle fleet and scouting force4. Sufficient number of destroyers for screening combat forces only. Insufficient number of destroyers for convoy and ASW. Many destroyers were overage.5. Submarines 40 percent below war strength6. Aircrafta. Shortage of long-range patrol bombersb. Lack of modern carrier aircraft7. Landing craft: Woeful inadequacy in number8. Manpower: Enlisted personnel afloat (78 percent of prescribed manning)9. Bases -- Critical deficienciesa. Patrol plane bases needed at Oahu, Midway, Johnston, Palmyra, Wake, and Puerto Ricob. Advance fleet bases required in Trinidad, Brazil, West Africa, Guam, Wake, and the East Indiesc. Facilities already available were not adequately defended10. Marine Corps: One third of desired strength11. Conclusion: “Not now fully prepared”10
11Battle History Video 1919-1941 Chapter 2 “Fire and Water” 04: :50
12Enabling ObjectivesEXPLAIN the principal points of the Treaty of Versailles and the main shortcomings of the League of Nations.EXPLAIN the treaties resulting from the Washington Naval conference and subsequent changes in naval technology and strategy.EXPLAIN the relationship between international affairs and national defense goals in the context of sea.EXPLAIN ways in which changes in American society affected foreign policy and the development and employment of the U.S. Navy during this period.
13Questions?Next time: World War II: The US Navy in North Africa, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic,