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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.9: U.S. Naval Strategy and National Policy, 1919-1941.

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Presentation on theme: "Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.9: U.S. Naval Strategy and National Policy, 1919-1941."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.9: U.S. Naval Strategy and National Policy,

2 Enabling Objectives EXPLAIN the principal points of the Treaty of Versailles and the main shortcomings of the League of Nations.EXPLAIN the principal points of the Treaty of Versailles and the main shortcomings of the League of Nations. EXPLAIN the treaties resulting from the Washington Naval conference and subsequent changes in naval technology and strategy.EXPLAIN the treaties resulting from the Washington Naval conference and subsequent changes in naval technology and strategy. EXPLAIN the relationship between international affairs and national defense goals in the context of sea.EXPLAIN the relationship between international affairs and national defense goals in the context of sea. EXPLAIN ways in which changes in American society affected foreign policy and the development and employment of the U.S. Navy during this period.EXPLAIN ways in which changes in American society affected foreign policy and the development and employment of the U.S. Navy during this period.

3 Post WWI - U.S. Navy, U.S. Navy stronger after WW IU.S. Navy stronger after WW I Focused on Mahanian principles of fleet annihilationFocused on Mahanian principles of fleet annihilation Major naval building program begins Major naval building program begins – Naval Act of 1916 continued and expanded-35 capital ships – Emphasis on capital ships –Need for a large fleet to protect both coasts – Construction planned to rival and eclipse the Royal Navy

4 A Return to Normalcy 1920: American people need a Return to Normalcy1920: American people need a Return to Normalcy –President Warren G. Harding – Does not support a Navy second to none – Republican Congress supports disarmament – Determined to cut military spending after WW I

5 5 Power Naval Limitations Treaty 5 Power Naval Limitations Treaty – Immediate 10-year Holiday on construction of new capital ships – U.S. would scrap 26 battleships totaling 693,520 tons! –U.S., Britain, Japan, France, Italy –Capital ship tonnage ratio of –No capital ship over 35K tons Washington Naval Conference ( ) Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes

6 Effects of the Five Power Treaty

7 The Navy Suffers Congress authorizes eight cruisers Congress authorizes eight cruisers –President Coolidge suspends funds for all but two of the cruisers President Hoover builds zero combatants President Hoover builds zero combatants –USS Lexington (CV-2) Cascading economic problems leading to Great Depression Cascading economic problems leading to Great Depression

8 Navy Hopes For Change Roosevelt becomes President Roosevelt becomes President –Recognized deteriorating international situation –Favored naval buildup Earmarked $238M for Navy.Earmarked $238M for Navy. –Yorktown and Enterprise keels laid – : Naval funding increases to 1 billion –New naval bases and air stations are built.

9 USS Ranger (CV 4)

10 U.S. Fleet Status Battleships - Capital ships of the fleetBattleships - Capital ships of the fleet ManningManning –Navy officers and enlisted: 113,617 –Marine officers and enlisted: 18,223 = 1/3 of desired strength Submarines: 40% below wartime strength.Submarines: 40% below wartime strength. Fleet Status:Fleet Status: Battleships: 15 Aircraft Carriers: 3Battleships: 15 Aircraft Carriers: 3 Heavy cruisers: 17 Light cruisers: 10Heavy cruisers: 17 Light cruisers: 10 Destroyers: 196 (162 overage) Subs: 81 (50 over-aged)Destroyers: 196 (162 overage) Subs: 81 (50 over-aged)

11 Battle History Video Chapter 2 Fire and Water -04: :50

12 Enabling Objectives EXPLAIN the principal points of the Treaty of Versailles and the main shortcomings of the League of Nations.EXPLAIN the principal points of the Treaty of Versailles and the main shortcomings of the League of Nations. EXPLAIN the treaties resulting from the Washington Naval conference and subsequent changes in naval technology and strategy.EXPLAIN the treaties resulting from the Washington Naval conference and subsequent changes in naval technology and strategy. EXPLAIN the relationship between international affairs and national defense goals in the context of sea.EXPLAIN the relationship between international affairs and national defense goals in the context of sea. EXPLAIN ways in which changes in American society affected foreign policy and the development and employment of the U.S. Navy during this period.EXPLAIN ways in which changes in American society affected foreign policy and the development and employment of the U.S. Navy during this period.

13 Questions? Next time: World War II: The US Navy in North Africa, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic,


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