Presentation on theme: "Foreign Policies of the 1920s The way the US interacts with the world post WWI."— Presentation transcript:
Foreign Policies of the 1920s The way the US interacts with the world post WWI
Learning Target: The US foreign policy during the 1920s was the idea of doing the least amount possible in foreign affairs with the purpose of preventing/avoiding future wars. (i.e. not joining the League of Nations, Dawes, Washington Conference, Kellogg Briand Pact). America changes from interventionist to isolationist policies with the purpose of “returning to “normalcy”, meaning focusing on America’s concerns.
1. The Dawes Plan influence European economies without direct government intervention Post WWI – Allies owed the US $10 Billion – could not repay unless Germany repaid their $30 billion debt
1. The Dawes Plan Germany defaulted on it’s payments in Dec 1922 and Jan 1923, the French marched into Germany’s Ruhr valley. To avoid another war, the US stepped in.
1. The Dawes Plan US sent Charles G. Dawes (wealthy Chicago banker) to negotiate loans from private American banks to Germany and set up a new payment schedule. These negotiations became known as the Dawes Plan.
1. The Dawes Plan US banks loaned Germany 2.5 Billion – Germany could pay the Allies, Allies could now pay the US government
1. The Dawes Plan Outcome = This only helped with a fraction that was owed, but it avoided another war The US became the most powerful country in the world
2. The Washington Conference - November 1921, nine nations met at the Washington Naval Conference to discuss disarmament – limitation or reduction of weapons. Led by Hughes – US Secretary of State.
2. The Washington Conference Outcome – three major treaties were signed 1. the US, GB, Japan, FR, and IT pledged to limit the number of their largest ships and stop constructing new ships
2. The Washington Conference 2. GB and US = keep 500,000 tons of ships each, Japan 300,000 tons, France and Italy = 167,000 tons – Japan not happy – called the 5:5:3 – “Rolls-Royce, Rolls-Royce, Ford.” Only agreed if American and GB would not build new naval bases on the western Pacific islands.
2. The Washington Conference 3. Japan promised to respect China’s sovereignty and independence. US concerns about Japanese power and ambitions in the Pacific….
3. The Kellogg-Briand Act Two-nation pact by France’s foreign minister – Aristide Briand – goal was to outlaw war and create a world treaty.
3. Kellogg – Briand Pact 14 Nations initially signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 – the treaty declared war illegal, but did not include punishments for future attackers Purpose was to end US military entanglements with Europe.
4. Relations with Latin America US wanted to protect its interests in Latin America Business firms continued their search for markets and raw materials
4. Relations with Latin America By 1924, the US controlled 14/20 Latin American countries US felt that it was their right to extend its civilization south of the border
4. Relations with Latin America After WWI, US removed some military in Central America, but kept troops where the US had high interest – ex) Nicaragua – US bankers and policy makers essentially controlled the economy By 1929, American policymakers began to recognize that US troops in Latin America created resentment abroad and criticism at home.