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Washington Naval Conference

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Presentation on theme: "Washington Naval Conference"— Presentation transcript:

1 Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference

2 Who? United States Great Britain Japan France Italy Belgium China
The Netherlands Portugal Nine nations were invited to Washington to discuss naval reductions and the situation in the Far East (all nations with economic/imperialistic interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia) Naval Race -Great Britain -Japan -France -Italy Far East -Belgium -China -The Netherlands -Portugal

3 Why? To discuss naval reductions and the situation in the Far East
Called by President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington DC It was the first… …international conference held in the United States …disarmament conference in history Helped countries to recognize the crushing financial costs of a naval arms race To restrict the growth of naval tonnage (a key measure of military strength) To prevent the possibility of another war by preventing a naval arms race To relieve growing tensions in East Asia To discuss naval reductions and the situation in the Far East

4 Ulterior Motives? United States
To restrain Japanese naval expansion in the waters of the west Pacific To eliminate Anglo-American tensions by dissolving the Anglo-Japanese alliance To agree on a naval ratio with Japan To push Japan to accept a continuation of the Open Door Policy in China Everything on the slide… United States To restrain Japanese naval expansion in the waters of the west Pacific To eliminate Anglo-American tensions by dissolving the Anglo-Japanese alliance To agree on a naval ratio with Japan To push Japan to accept a continuation of the Open Door Policy in China

5 Ulterior Motives? Great Britain Great Britain
Global position threatened by a multitude of military obligations that far exceeded possible military capacity To achieve peace and stability in the western Pacific To avoid a naval arms race with the United States To stop Japanese encroachment onto British territories Singapore Hong Kong Everything on the slide… Great Britain Global position threatened by a multitude of military obligations that far exceeded possible military capacity To achieve peace and stability in the western Pacific To avoid a naval arms race with the United States To stop Japanese encroachment onto British territories Singapore Hong Kong

6 Ulterior Motives? Japan
To sign a naval treaty with Britain and the United States To obtain official recognition of Japanese presence in Manchuria and Mongolia Desire to remain in control of Yap, Siberia, Tsingtao

7 When? November 12, 1921 – February 6, 1922 In Washington D.C.
Called by President Warren G. Harding

8 What Happened? Three major treaties emerged from the conference
The Five-Power Treaty The Four-Power Treaty The Nine-Power Treaty Signatories at the Washington Naval Conference Three major treaties emerged from the conference 1) The Five-Power treaty -Countries involved: United States; Great Britain; Japan; France; Italy -called for each of the countries to maintain a ratio of warship tonnage Britain/ United States: 500,000 tons Japan: 300,000 tons France/ Italy: 175,00 tons -Britain and US allowed higher tonnage because they maintained two-ocean navies -controversy regarding Article XIX which recognized status quo of US, British, Japanese bases in Pacific but outlawed their expansion 2) The Four-Power treaty -Countries involved: United States; France; Britain; Japan -replaced Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1902 -ensured that no countries would be obligated to engage in conflict, but that a mechanism would exist for discussions if a conflict emerged 3) Nine-Power Treaty -marked the internationalization of the United States Open Door Policy in China -promised that each signatory (US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, China) would respect the territorial integrity of China -recognized Japanese presence in Manchuria, reaffirmed the importance for equal business opportunity in the country -lacked a method of enforcement to ensure that all powers abided by the terms of the treaties

9 Ramifications? Short Term Short Term
Froze the construction of new fortifications and naval facilities in the Western Pacific Japan was left supreme power in the Far East Led to the decommission of several naval ships Upheld the status quo in the Pacific On the slide… Short Term Froze the construction of new fortifications and naval facilities in the Western Pacific Japan was left supreme power in the Far East Led to the decommission of several naval ships Upheld the status quo in the Pacific

10 Ramifications? Long Term Long Term
Made US defense of the Philippines from a Japanese attack nearly impossible Improved relations between the major world powers Spread the navies of Britain and the United States widely Unfortunate consequences for China in the 1930’s when the US refused to become involved with Japanese aggression Treaties were later modified (London Naval Treaty of 1930, Second London Naval Treaty of 1936) Led to new and innovative battleships as only certain ships were limited by the Naval Treaty The Hipper Class of Naval Ships were built to flout the conditions of the Washington Naval Treaty On slide… Long Term Made US defense of the Philippines from a Japanese attack nearly impossible Improved relations between the major world powers Spread the navies of Britain and the United States widely Unfortunate consequences for China in the 1930’s when the US refused to become involved with Japanese aggression Treaties were later modified (London Naval Treaty of 1930, Second London Naval Treaty of 1936) Led to new and innovative battleships as only certain ships were limited by the Naval Treaty

11 Thank You! Bibliography:
Canaday, Marquis. "The Washington Naval Conference " US Department of State: Office of the Historian. US Department of State, n.d. Web. 6 Oct <http://history.state.gov/milestones/ /NavalConference>. "1921–1922 Washington Naval Conference." GlobalSecurity.org. Ed. John Pike. N.p., Web. 6 Oct <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/naval-arms-control-1921.htm>.


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