Presentation on theme: "Sea Power and Maritime Affairs"— Presentation transcript:
1Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 7: The Dawning of the Age of Mahan,
2Learning ObjectivesComprehend the historical background to the popularization of the doctrine of sea power in the late 19th century.Comprehend Mahan's viewpoint of sea power as a geopolitical and naval concept.
3Learning ObjectivesComprehend the distinctive British interpretation of sea power as expounded by Sir Julian Corbett.Comprehend Mahan's influence on European and American naval history between 1890 and 1898.
4Background Commerce Raiding Naval War College- Mahan was assigned there.The Influence of Sea Power upon History,Privateers, posture as a weaker nation, naval minimalists Jefferson, CSS Alabama = guerre de course1. From 1865 to 1885, commerce raiding and coastal defense were the accepted strategies of the U.S. Navy. In an age of technological change, these ideas began to seem obsolete to an influential group of American naval leaders.2. RADM Stephen B. Luce established the Naval War College in (Naval Instituted, ONI, NWC) One of the first things he does is assign Mahan there to teach class on naval strategy.3. He followed the precepts of commerce raiding.In the course of his study of British history he changed his mind.“Fleet-centric”4. Mahan's lecture notes become the basis for his first book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, , published in 1890, and the first of 20.
5Sea Power Sea Sea Power Possession of a powerful navy Colonies Common over which men can pass in all directions.Great medium of communication established by nature.Important to the extent that men use it.Sea PowerPossession of a powerful navyColoniesIncreasing WealthIncrease in Strength and Capacity.“Command of the Sea”a. The book brought Mahan fame in his lifetime and ever since.Focused on Fleets and big Navies- standing in Peace as well as warb. This had understandable appeal to industrialists, merchants interested in overseas trade, investors, nationalists, and imperialists, and peacetime America. Mahan provided a powerful argument for achieving and preserving sea powerSeapower consisted of a series of interlocking factorsControl the SLOC that the sea offered to man and his interests
6Elements of “Sea Power” Geographic PositionPhysical ConformationExtent of TerritoryNumber of PopulationNational CharacterCharacter of the GovernmentStrategic principles "remain as though laid on a rock.”Crete, EnglandGeog. Pos: an island power with no land frontiers to defend, easy access to major trade routesPhys. Conf: Seaboard, good ports, poor hinterlandExtent of territory: proportion of population to the length of the coastline, percent that followed that followed the seaNational Character: Holland, England open attitude toward commerce, creative vision of coloniesSpain, Portugal: plundererFrench: hoarderCharacter of Government: that paid careful attention to creating, equipping, and maintaining the nation’s navy and securing for it bases of operationA recipe for empireOverlooked technology
7Tactics versus Strategy Aspects of operations occurring after the beginning of combat.Dynamic due to changes in technology of armaments and propulsion.StrategyShould remain constant through periods of technological change.Didn’t invent the difference, but he highlighted it in an important wayDelineated this very important difference between tactics and strategy, what Corbett called “major strategy” and “minor strategy”The science and art of maneuvering forces in combat.Tactics: the science and art of using a fighting force to the best advantage having regard to the immediate situation of combatStrategy: the science and art of conducting a military campaign in its large-scale and long-term aspectsshort-sightedexample: steam-shipInvade England with a huge armada sailing vessels: weather gaugesteam ship of late 19th century: torpedoesNot to say it was correct: strategic impact nuclear missiles
8Mahan’s Strategic Questions What is a navy’s function?Answer: Command of the seas.How should a navy be deployed?Answer: Battle fleets.
9Mahan’s Strategic Questions Where should the coaling stations needed to support them be established?Answer: Near geographic "choke-points”.What is the value of commerce destruction, and should this be a primary or secondary goal of naval action?Answer: It cannot win wars (CSS Alabama) -- secondary mission.Coaling Stations - US had been using combo of steam and sail - red marks in log book to use steam because inadequate coaling stationsChoke Points - dependent on SLOCsIn America:Hawaii - main stop in between W Coast and Far EastCaribbean Islands eventually Panama when the canal is built - grand-daddy of choke pointsBosporus: strait 17 miles across separating Europe from Asia MinorIn Europe: Gibraltor, Bosporus and Dardanelles, SuezIn Asia: MalaccaToday: Straits of HormuzThese are all good test questions.
10Mahan’s ViewsU.S. needs to build a battleship navy capable of defeating enemy fleets.ColoniesValuable locations for coaling stations.Vital to a steam-driven battleship navy.Panama Isthmus passage necessary for U.S. naval power.Will become a critical maritime "choke-point”.U.S. Navy must be a ”Two-Ocean" Navy - Atlantic and Pacific.Colonies vital to a battle ship navy in a way that they were not to sailing shipsRemember Mahan’s view of colonies - in support of commerce and the navy, not for commerce itself. This is different than many Eur power’s colonies -- many were vital to the economy of the Eur country’s economiesIf a canal is built - US will have to build a fleet able to contest Eur powers for control of the sea - the Caribbean will become an extremely vital sea line of communicationPanama: the trumpet call of the original Mahanian: Theodore Roosevelt
11Mahan’s Views Need to enlarge the merchant marine. Essence of Mahan: U.S. needs a “Great Navy”.Mark of and prerequisite for national greatness.Designed to fight an enemy in fleet engagements.In order to win command of the sea.Not designed for commerce raiding (guerre de course) or protection.Merchant Marine declines as part of Manifest Destiny, focus was inwardCommerce is the reason for command of the sea and the heart of sea powerDoes everyone understand thatThe reason we want those sea lanes is for commerce; the best way to protect it is with command of the seas; command of the seas comes through battlefleets
12Sir Julian Corbett Some Principles of Maritime Strategy (1911) Points of agreement with Mahan:Command of the sea is of prime importance.Commerce raiding is the strategy of the weaker power.Development of naval strategy related to Clausewitz:Relationship of naval strategy to government policy.Interdependence of all elements of national power.Predecessed slightly by MahanMany historians consider a more time-tested philosophyFocused on the nature of maritime strategy and the purposes of naval warfare instead of looking for a general theory of sea powerAgreed with Mahan…Rather than Sea Power a thing unto itselfClausewitz: Prussian General and military thinker who theorized on total war in On War, war as a policy instrumentCorbett sought to explain naval power in the same terms
13Differences from Mahan: Interdependence of land and sea forces is crucial to the success of a national military effort.Strategic thinking itself may have to be changed.A Navy's main purpose may be sea control, combined operations, or commerce war.Big on amphibious and limited war; there is no point in having a Navy if there is no army for it to supportStrategic thinking may have to be changed depending on the nature of the object: a negative object (denial) required a defensive strategy, a positive object (acquisition) required an offensive strategy.Just as short-sighted in regard to technology, which everyone must have been given the unexpected pace of technology that lasts until this very second.
14Impact of MahanValidates naval and colonial policies of European powers, Russian Empire, and Japan.Increasing naval arms race in Europe until World War I, especially between Germany and Great Britain.Building large fleets of capital ships in late 1800’s.Writings become required reading of naval officers.Further colonization of Africa and Asia.Br - continues on colonial expansionEmbracy MahanianismGermany, Japan - join in the race for supreme sea powerGerman Kaiser wants a copy of Mahan’s book in every wardroom, Japan makes it required reading for all of her officers
15Mahan in the USNot as quick to accept Mahan’s teachings as other countries.President Theodore Roosevelt will use them as the foundation of his naval policy in the early 1900’s.US began rebuilding its fleet in 1880’s with the ABCD ships, starts to build a fleet of battle ships, this accelerates rapidly into the 1890’s into the McKinley Administration and with Teddy Roosevelt as Asst Sec of Navy in period leading up to Span Am WarCulmination of technological changes of last century leads to modern battle fleetsEmbraced by the ultimate Mahanian- Theodore Roosevelt
161889-1898 Mahan’s Decade Concept of Sea Power Impact Nations Strategic conclusionOperational conclusionImpact NationsBritain, Germany, Japan, USNaval Developments (Review from Lesson 8)Foreign Policy DevelopmentsSamoa (1889), Hawaii ( ), Venezuelan crisis ( ), Cuban Revolution ( )Spanish-American War (1898)Impact is to create a bunch of nations interested in global enterpriseSamoa-Spanish American War will be dealt with in next lesson 10. Important to set Mahan’s principles in this lesson and then review them as you talk about Foreign policy developments in next chapter.
17Next time: The U.S. Navy and American Imperialism, DiscussionNew Steel Cruiser, ChicagoCompare/Contrast Mahan/CorbettUse technological developments to hypothesis development of strategy in next conflictsWhat impact would Mahan have on the different countries (concentrating on his strategic principles?)Next time: The U.S. Navy and American Imperialism,