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Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches.

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Presentation on theme: "Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg 1 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Curt-Engelhorn Chair in American History Prof. Dr. Manfred Berg Winter Term 2008/2009 The Reluctant Empire? U.S. Foreign Relations in the 20th Century

2 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Economic Diplomacy and Political Isolationism, The Economic Stabilization of Europe Disarmament and International Security The Expansion of American Culture Neutralism and the Rise of Fascism

3 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Warren G. Harding, U.S. Senator, U.S. President, Back to Normalcy

4 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Charles Evans Hughes, Gov. Of New York, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, U.S. Secretary of State, We do not wish to see a prostrate Germany. There can be no economic recuperation in Europe unless Germany recuperates.

5 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Charles G. Dawes, U.S. Vice President, U.S. Ambassador to Britain,

6 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Dawes Plan of 1924 Fixed annual reparation payments Transfer Agency headed by U.S. expert Evacuation of the Ruhr $200 million loan to jumpstart German Economy A Triumph of Common Sense and Justice New York Tribune, 1924

7 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg J. P. Morgan, U.S. Banker and Financier Played an Important Role in the Reparation Plans of the 1920s

8 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Financial Merry-Go-Round American private loans go to Germany! Germany pays reparations to the Allies! The Allies pay their war debts to the U.S.! Problem: The Europeans needed to earn U.S. dollars to pay their debts but the U.S. raised tariffs to protect their industries.

9 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Owen D. Young, The Young Plan, 1929 Reduction of German Reparations Bank for International Settlements

10 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Herbert C. Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, U.S. President, Hoover Moratorium, June 1931

11 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Washington Naval Conference, Ten-year Moratorium on building battleships Limit on Aircraft Carriers Fixed Tonnage Ratio: U.S. and GB (5); Japan (3); France and Italy (1.75) Status Quo in the Pacific Guarantee of sovereignty, independence, and integrity of China

12 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Frank B. Kellogg, U.S. Secretary of State, Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 renounces war as an instrument of national policy.

13 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Americanism Democracy Individual Freedom Consumerism Efficiency Pragmatism Modernity Science and Technology Mobility

14 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Hollywood Hollywoodland 1923 Metro Studios, early 1920s

15 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Modern Times Charlie Chaplin in Modern Times, 1936

16 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Charles Lindbergh, Capt. Charles Lindbergh in front of the Spirit of St. Louis, 1927

17 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, 1925

18 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Crash, October 1929

19 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Henry L. Stimson, U.S. Secretary of War, / U.S. Secretary of State, Stimson Doctrine of 1932: Nonrecognition of forcible territorial changes

20 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Adolf Hitler, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, 1933

21 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Franklin D. Roosevelt, One of FDRs famous Fireside Chats, 1933

22 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Senator Gerald P. Nye, U.S. Senator Chairman of the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, Merchants of Death

23 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Neutrality Acts, Embargo on all war materials Prohibition to increase exports of materials essential for war Buyers pay cash and carry at their own risk No loans to belligerents Americans must not travel on belligerent ships


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