2 “Normalcy”Ohio Senator that assumed the Presidency in RepublicanHarding yearned for “normalcy” or the simpler days before the Progressive Era and the Great WarHis words or peace and calm comforted the healing nation
3 Harding as President Harding had limited knowledge and poor judgment He was considered good-natured and good-looking and “looked like a president ought to look”
4 Struggling for Peace after WWI Washington Naval Conference1921Harding invites major naval powers to DC, appealing for peaceRussia was left out because of its Communist governmentSecretary of the State Charles Evans Hughes urged that no more warships be built for ten yearsSuggested five major naval powers—U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France and Italy– scrap many of their battleships, cruisers, and aircraft carriers***First time in history that powerful nations had agreed to disarm
5 By 1929, US succeeds in having 64 nations sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact Pact “renounced war as an instrument of national policy”Americans loved it, but there was really no way to enforce the agreement.
6 Harding’s Foreign Policy ISOLATIONISM:pulling the U.S. away from involvement in world affairs
7 Paying the Reparations Britain and France could not pay back money they borrowed from U.S. (owed $10 billion+)Do so in 2 ways:By selling goods to the U.S.Collecting reparations from GermanyIn 1922, America adopted Fordney-McCumber TarriffRaised taxes on U.S. imports to 60% (highest level ever)Tax protected U.S. businesses (chemical and Metal industries) from foreign competitionThis made it impossible for Britain and France to sell enough goods in the U.S. to repay its debt
8 Paying the Reparations France and Britain turned to Germany for ReparationsGermany could not pay and French troops marched inTo avoid another war, Charles G. Dawes, an American banker negotiated a loan, known as the Dawes PlanThe U.S. arranged to be repaid with its own money
9 Paying the Reparations Dawes Plan caused resentmentFrance and Britain believed U.S. was not paying a fair share of the costs of W.W. I.U.S. had benefited from the German defeatEuropeans paid for the victoryU.S. considered Britain and France financially irresponsibleBad feelings all around……
10 Scandal Rocks Harding’s Administration Harding’s CabinetCharles Evans Hughes, Secretary of the StateLater became Chief Justice of the Supreme CourtHerbert Hoover, Secretary of CommerceHad done a great job handling food distribution and refugee problems during W.W.I.Andrew Mellon, Secretary of TreasuryDrastically cut taxesReduced national debt
11 Scandal Rocks Harding’s Administration “Ohio gang”: President’s poker-playing croniesThe cabinet included members of President Harding’s poker playing friendsThey often caused a great deal of embarrassment
12 Scandal Rocks Harding’s Administration Harding’s administration unraveled as his corrupt friends used their offices to become wealthy through graftGraft: bribeCharles R. Forbes, head of the Veterans BureauCaught illegally selling government and hospital supplies to private companiesColonel Thomas W. Miller, head of the Office of Alien PropertyCaught taking a bribe
13 TEAPOT DOME SCANDALThe worst case of corruption was the Teapot Dome Scandal. The government set aside oil-rich public land in Teapot, Wyoming. Secretary of Interior Albert Fall secretly leased the land to two oil companies. Fall received $400,000 from the oil companies and a felony conviction from the courts
14 Scandal Rocks Harding’s Administration In the summer of 1923, Harding declared, “I have no trouble with my enemies…But my friends, they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor nights!”August 2, 1923 President Harding died suddenlyThe crimes of his Administration came to light as his Vice-President Calvin Coolidge took over
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.