2 What is a plant? A plant grows and changes. A plant uses sunlight, water and nutrients from the ground to make it’s own food.Many plants are green.Some plants have fruits, flowers or seeds.Plants are not mobile.
3 What’s inside a plant?All living things are made up of cells, or tiny structures that help us carry out our basic functions like breathing and growing.Plant cells are different from animal cells.
4 Plant CellPlant cells have a cell wall to give them a strong structure and a regular shape.
5 What do the parts do?Cytoplasm: A jelly like substance that helps keep everything else in placeNucleus: acts as the control center for the cellCell wall: gives the plant structure so it can grow tall (the bricks for a building)Central Vacuole: where all the waste goes (since plants can’t use the restroom!)Cell membrane: attached to the cell wall to regulate what can come in and out of the cell (the door guards)Chloroplasts: packets that contain chlorophyll
6 How do plants eat? All plants photosynthesize. Photosynthesis is using energy from light to create sugar. Carbon Dioxide and water combine in the presence of light and chlorophyll to produce sugar and oxygen (see formula below).CO2 + H2O C6H12O8 + O2**Photosynthesis can ONLY happen when there is light (real or artificial).LightChlorophyll
7 Where does photosynthesis occur? Inside plants are little green packets called chlorophyll that contain cells called chloroplasts. These have a green color to them, making plants look green. They are the cells that turn the light energy into food for the plant.What does chlorophyll do?
8 When does photosynthesis start? Photosynthesis cannot begin until a seed germinates.Germinate: to start to grow from a seedWhy can’t photosynthesis occur until the seed sprouts to the surface? (Hint: Think about what 3 things a plant needs to photosynthesize!)
9 Seeds: How do they grow? Embryo (baby plant) Endosperm (food for plant)Seed Covering
10 How do we classify (group) plants? Vascularity: Does it have vascular tissue? Vasular tissue transports water, minerals and nutrients. It also supports plant height. Two types of vascular tissue: - Xylem: carries water and minerals from roots to shoots - Phloem: carries nutrients made in leaves to rest of plant Reproduction: Does it produce seeds or spores? Seed type: Are the seeds naked or covered? Cotyledons: Does it have one or two?
11 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Non-vascular: MossVascularNo Seeds: FernsHave SeedsHave fruit, flowers and covered seeds (Angiosperms)No flowers or fruit, naked seeds (Gymnosperms): Pine, fir, and palm treesParts of a PlantWhat are Gymnosperms and Angiosperms?1 cotyledon, fibrous roots, parallel veins and flowers in multiples of 3 (Monocotyledons): Corn, grass, daffodils2 cotyledons, tap root, netted veins and flowers in multiples of 4 or 5 (Dicotyledons):Roses, apples, peas
12 GymnospermsThese are a type of plant that do not have flowers or fruit. Their seeds are not covered by anything.They may have cones, or needle shape leaves like an evergreen tree. Succulents (cacti) and carnivorous plants (venus fly traps) are also gymnosperms.They reproduce by seeds and pollen being distributed through the wind or by insects.
13 Special Gymnosperms Carnivorous Plants These plants live in swampy soils where water carries the minerals away. All of them have specialized ways to catch insects to supply the nutrients the soil is missing. The insects act as a multivitamin for the plants.Example: Venus Fly TrapCarnivorous Plants Video
14 Special Gymnosperms Evergreen Trees These trees are native to cold or dry areas, such as the sides and tops of mountains.Example: Norfolk pine trees have sloping branches and flexible limbs to shed heavy snow in the winter. The needles are it’s leaves. These are waxy and have little surface area to preserve moisture since they live in a dry area.
15 Special Gymnosperms Dry Environment Plants These plants live in very dry or hot areas, like deserts. They have a waxy coating on their thick leaves to prevent water from escaping. Some have sharp modified leaves (needles) to protect it from predators who might want the water stored inside it.Example: Cactus, Jade Plant and Living Stone (found in the deserts of South Africa)
16 AngiospermsAngiosperms are a type of plant that have fruits, flowers and covered seeds.Angiosperms are divided into two groups: Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons (Monocots and Dicots for short!)A cotyledon is the first leaf that sprouts when a seed germinates. It starts the process of photosynthesis so the plant can start making it’s own food.
18 Monocots: Special Features 1 cotyledon, or seed leafFlower parts (sepals, petals, ovaries and carpels) in multiples of 3Fibrous rootsParallel veins in leavesExamples: corn, grass, daffodils, and bamboo
19 Dicots: Special Features 2 cotyledons, or seed leafFlower parts (sepals, petals, ovaries, and carpels) in multiples of 4 or 5Tap rootsNetted veins in leavesExamples: carrots, dandelions, apples and roses
20 Parallel Veins Netted Veins One main root with smaller ones attached to it.Parallel Veins Netted VeinsAll roots are of equal sizeFlower parts in multiples of 4 or 5Flower parts in multiples of 3
21 3 Types of FruitFleshy – apples, tomatoes, cucumbers, oranges, etc. Soft, not dry seed will sprout on it’s ownDry dehiscent – cotton, dandelions, peanuts, beans, cotton trees, etc.Seed will open on it’s ownDry indehiscent – acorn, walnut, coconut, etc.Seed must be forced open
22 Parts of a Flower Female Parts Male Parts Pistil (style and stigma) OvariesOvulesMale PartsStamen (anther and filament)PollenPlant Growth Video
24 Can plants move?Plants do not have motion, but they CAN move. Watch these awesome videos about plant tropisms (responses to their environment). Phototropism, gravitropism and heliotropism are a few ways plants respond to light, gravity and the sun. The direction of the stimulus determines the direction of the response.Nastic movements are another way plants can move. These responses to environmental stimuli are NOT dependent on the direction of the stimulus. Responses to touch (Venus Fly Trap), heat (Mimosa plant) and the need for support (Morning Glory) are all nastic movements shown in these videos. Plants in Motion