Presentation on theme: "PLANTS: structure and function"— Presentation transcript:
1 PLANTS: structure and function March 2008Mrs.. Snyder
2 Plants: Grouped by characteristics VascularThree main parts: roots, stems and leavesRoots can be different sizes:Fibrous and tap rootsStorage roots; beets, carrots, sweet potatoes and turnipsRoots have different functions: anchoring the plant, taking in water and minerals, and store food.NonvascularSimple; most grow in moist placesNo vascular tissues.
3 Vascular Plants: Stems Function of stemsSupport, transport of water & foodMost stems grow upwardSome stems grow sidewardTypes of stemsGreenWoodyTransport of materialsXylem & phloem
4 Vascular Plants: Leaves Leaves come in variety of shapes and sizesLeaves are arranged in different ways
5 What do plants do? All plants are alike in one way. They need three things in order to surviveWatercarbon dioxideenergy from sunlightWhat do you suppose the plants use these things for?Classify – to sort into groups based on similarities and differences
6 Plants and some protists conduct photosynthesis. They turn it into sugar!photosynthesis – a process by which plants change light energy from the sun and use it to make sugarPlants and some protists conduct photosynthesis.
7 Photosynthesis A movie of photosynthesis As a plant makes sugar, oxygen is releasedWhen the plant uses the sugar, water and carbon dioxide are released.chlorophyll – the green substance found in plants that traps energy from the sun and gives plants their green colorcarbon dioxide – a gas found in air
8 How Do Plants Get Energy Plant leaves change lightenergy into energythe plant can use.Stomata are tiny holes on the bottom of the leaf that let air (CO2.) in and (O2)out.Roots get water and minerals directly from the soil.They get sunlight, water, and air (CO2.)The veins of a leaf bring water and minerals to the leaf from the stems and roots.
9 Because of this process Scientists are able to classify living things by the way they get their food.Plants are producers (autotrophs)producer – it is a living thing that uses sunlight to make sugar. This sugar feeds others.
10 Plants reproduce differently Reproduce – it means “to make more of the same kind”Plants reproduce differentlyPlants are classified by characteristics.Plants that make seedsPlants that do not make seedsFlowering PlantsConifersFernsMosses
11 a protective covering that surrounds the seed makes seeds.makes the plant's food.carries water and food to the rest of the plant.anchor the plant in place and absorb water and other minerals from the soil.
12 What Are the Parts of a Flower Sepal – one of the leaf-like parts that protects a flower bud and that is usually greenPistil – part of a flower that makes the eggs that grow into seedsStamen – part of a flower that makes pollenPollen – tiny grains that make seeds when combined with a flower’s eggWhat Are the Parts of a FlowerMost flowers have four partsFlower parts
13 How Do Flowers Make Seeds and Fruits? Great Plant Escape- Plant parts Ovary – the bottom part of the pistil in which seeds formOvule - the inner part of an ovary that contains an eggembryo – tiny part of a seed that can grow into a new plantHow Do Flowers Make Seeds and Fruits? Great Plant Escape- Plant parts
14 How Seeds FormAfter fertilization the flower dries up and petals fall off, leaving just the pistil and its ovary.The top of the pistil falls off and the ovary gets larger as one or more seeds form inside it.When the seeds are formed, the ovary dries up and the seeds fall out.Corn, Beans, and Peas are seeds that we eat
15 How Fertilization Occurs When a pollen grain reaches a pistil, it grows a thin tube to the ovary. Sperm from the pollen grain combines with an egg, and a seed forms.Fertilization – the combination of sperm from a pollen grain with an egg to form a seed
16 How Pollination Occurs Butterflies may carry pollen from the stamen of one flower to the pistil of the the same flower. Sometimes the butterfly may carry pollen from the stamen of one flower to the pistil of another flower of the same kind.Pollen: Nothing to Sneeze AtPollination- the movement of pollen from a stamen to a pistil
17 Some flowering plants are monocot seed – a seed that has one seed leaf and stored food outside the seed leafdicot seed – a seed that has two seed leaves that contain stored food
18 What is the Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant dormant – the resting stage of a seedDormant SeedTakes in water and the seed coat gets soft. If the seed has enough oxygen and the right temperature, it will begin to germinate.
19 Geminating SeedFirst a root pushes through the seed coat and grows downward.The top part of the root grows upward and becomes the stem. The stem carries the seed coat and the seed leaves with it. The seed coat falls off. The seed leaves provide food for the plant. Two small leaves begin to grow from between the seed leaves.
20 SeedlingWhen the stored food within the original seed leaves is used up, they dry up and drop off. More leaves grow from buds on the stem as the plant grows taller. The new leaves can trap energy from sunlight and make sugar. Plants use the energy in the sugar to grow.
21 How Do Other Living Things Get Energy? All living things need energy to surviveConsumer – a living thing that gets energy by eating plants and other animals
22 Animals cannot use light energy to make sugar Animals cannot use light energy to make sugar. Animals depend on plants for food.Decomposer – a consumer that puts materials from dead plants and animals back into the soil, air, and water
23 Consider this…. What is one way to classify all plants into two groups How do plants that do not make seeds reproduce?In what part of a flower are seeds made?How are flowers pollinated?How is a monocot seed different from a dicot seed?
24 What do seedlings need to grow into mature plants? How does a bean plant grow from a bean seed?What is the main source of energy for plantsWhat do plants need to make sugar?How do animals – herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores – get the energy they need to survive?How are decomposers important?
25 Student activity What comes out of leaves in sunlight? Page A123Do all plants grow the same way?What happens if a seed is planted upside down?HW: bring in a container to use in a planting project ounces.