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PLANTS: structure and function

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1 PLANTS: structure and function
March 2008 Mrs.. Snyder

2 Plants: Grouped by characteristics
Vascular Three main parts: roots, stems and leaves Roots can be different sizes: Fibrous and tap roots Storage roots; beets, carrots, sweet potatoes and turnips Roots have different functions: anchoring the plant, taking in water and minerals, and store food. Nonvascular Simple; most grow in moist places No vascular tissues.

3 Vascular Plants: Stems
Function of stems Support, transport of water & food Most stems grow upward Some stems grow sideward Types of stems Green Woody Transport of materials Xylem & phloem

4 Vascular Plants: Leaves
Leaves come in variety of shapes and sizes Leaves are arranged in different ways

5 What do plants do? All plants are alike in one way.
They need three things in order to survive Water carbon dioxide energy from sunlight What do you suppose the plants use these things for? Classify – to sort into groups based on similarities and differences

6 Plants and some protists conduct photosynthesis.
They turn it into sugar! photosynthesis – a process by which plants change light energy from the sun and use it to make sugar Plants and some protists conduct photosynthesis.

7 Photosynthesis A movie of photosynthesis
As a plant makes sugar, oxygen is released When the plant uses the sugar, water and carbon dioxide are released. chlorophyll – the green substance found in plants that traps energy from the sun and gives plants their green color carbon dioxide – a gas found in air

8 How Do Plants Get Energy
Plant leaves change light energy into energy the plant can use. Stomata are tiny holes on the bottom of the leaf that let air (CO2.) in and (O2)out. Roots get water and minerals directly from the soil. They get sunlight, water, and air (CO2.) The veins of a leaf bring water and minerals to the leaf from the stems and roots.

9 Because of this process
Scientists are able to classify living things by the way they get their food. Plants are producers (autotrophs) producer – it is a living thing that uses sunlight to make sugar. This sugar feeds others.

10 Plants reproduce differently
Reproduce – it means “to make more of the same kind” Plants reproduce differently Plants are classified by characteristics. Plants that make seeds Plants that do not make seeds Flowering Plants Conifers Ferns Mosses

11 a protective covering that surrounds the seed
makes seeds. makes the plant's food. carries water and food to the rest of the plant. anchor the plant in place and absorb water and other minerals from the soil.

12 What Are the Parts of a Flower
Sepal – one of the leaf-like parts that protects a flower bud and that is usually green Pistil – part of a flower that makes the eggs that grow into seeds Stamen – part of a flower that makes pollen Pollen – tiny grains that make seeds when combined with a flower’s egg What Are the Parts of a Flower Most flowers have four parts Flower parts

13 How Do Flowers Make Seeds and Fruits? Great Plant Escape- Plant parts
Ovary – the bottom part of the pistil in which seeds form Ovule - the inner part of an ovary that contains an egg embryo – tiny part of a seed that can grow into a new plant How Do Flowers Make Seeds and Fruits? Great Plant Escape- Plant parts

14 How Seeds Form After fertilization the flower dries up and petals fall off, leaving just the pistil and its ovary. The top of the pistil falls off and the ovary gets larger as one or more seeds form inside it. When the seeds are formed, the ovary dries up and the seeds fall out. Corn, Beans, and Peas are seeds that we eat

15 How Fertilization Occurs
When a pollen grain reaches a pistil, it grows a thin tube to the ovary. Sperm from the pollen grain combines with an egg, and a seed forms. Fertilization – the combination of sperm from a pollen grain with an egg to form a seed

16 How Pollination Occurs
Butterflies may carry pollen from the stamen of one flower to the pistil of the the same flower. Sometimes the butterfly may carry pollen from the stamen of one flower to the pistil of another flower of the same kind. Pollen: Nothing to Sneeze At Pollination- the movement of pollen from a stamen to a pistil

17 Some flowering plants are
monocot seed – a seed that has one seed leaf and stored food outside the seed leaf dicot seed – a seed that has two seed leaves that contain stored food

18 What is the Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant
dormant – the resting stage of a seed Dormant Seed Takes in water and the seed coat gets soft. If the seed has enough oxygen and the right temperature, it will begin to germinate.

19 Geminating Seed First a root pushes through the seed coat and grows downward. The top part of the root grows upward and becomes the stem. The stem carries the seed coat and the seed leaves with it. The seed coat falls off. The seed leaves provide food for the plant. Two small leaves begin to grow from between the seed leaves.

20 Seedling When the stored food within the original seed leaves is used up, they dry up and drop off. More leaves grow from buds on the stem as the plant grows taller. The new leaves can trap energy from sunlight and make sugar. Plants use the energy in the sugar to grow.

21 How Do Other Living Things Get Energy?
All living things need energy to survive Consumer – a living thing that gets energy by eating plants and other animals

22 Animals cannot use light energy to make sugar
Animals cannot use light energy to make sugar. Animals depend on plants for food. Decomposer – a consumer that puts materials from dead plants and animals back into the soil, air, and water

23 Consider this…. What is one way to classify all plants into two groups
How do plants that do not make seeds reproduce? In what part of a flower are seeds made? How are flowers pollinated? How is a monocot seed different from a dicot seed?

24 What do seedlings need to grow into mature plants?
How does a bean plant grow from a bean seed? What is the main source of energy for plants What do plants need to make sugar? How do animals – herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores – get the energy they need to survive? How are decomposers important?

25 Student activity What comes out of leaves in sunlight?
Page A123 Do all plants grow the same way? What happens if a seed is planted upside down? HW: bring in a container to use in a planting project ounces.

26 References March 7, <> March 7, <

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