2 1. Evolutionary Advancement: a. Plants are thought to have evolved from ___________________Key characteristics of plants:green algaeThe most diverse group of organisms on Earth.Most are photosynthetic.They are all multicellular.Absorb nutrients from their environment.
3 a. Cuticle - ______coating that covers the Plants3. Coming onto Landa. Cuticle - ______coating that covers theplant to create a water tight covering.b. Stomata – Microscopic ______in the leaf’s ____________ thatregulates _________and gas __________.c. Transpiration – the process by whichplants release water vapor into the airthrough stomata.waxyporescuticlewaterexchange
4 4. Four Categories of Plants 1. __________________(Example: Moss) 2. ___________________(Example: Fern)3. ____________________(Example: Pine Tree)4. ____________________(Example: Day Lily)NonvascularSeedless vascularGymnospermsAngiosperms
5 a. nonvascular – lack the tubes to move PlantsCATEGORY 1 – Nonvascular Plants – EXAMPLE: MOSSa. nonvascular – lack the tubes to movewater and nutrients throughout the plant.Have root structures called __________that anchor plant.No real roots, stems or leaves.Water and nutrients move through theplant by ________________________d. They require water for reproduction.rhizoidsosmosis and diffusion
6 a. Evolutionary advancement: Vascular system: This system includes: PlantsCATEGORY 2 – SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS – EXAMPLE: FERNa. Evolutionary advancement:Vascular system:This system includes:1. Xylem – tubes that carry water in a plant2. Phloem – tubes that carry food in the plantEnables plants to grow ________ nonvascular plants.They can reproduce with ___________- NOT SEEDS.They are found on the underside of leaves. Thisallows them to reproduce when it is dry / or there isdrought.In order for them to reproduce sexually, theyrequire ______ (in or on soil)largersporeswater
8 CATEGORY 3 – Gymnosperm – Example: Pine Tree PlantsCATEGORY 3 – Gymnosperm – Example: Pine Treea. Evolutionary advancement: _____________The seeds in these plants do not develop in a sealed container called a ______.b. They are the most successful plants because they can reproduce by seeds:1. Seeds contain:____________________ - baby plant_______________________ - nutrients for the plant to grow____________________ - to protect the seed until conditionsare favorable to grow.2. Seeds only need ______ to germinate.They have also evolved very light seed coats so they can__________________.seedsfruitembryostored food - cotyledonseed coatwaterblow in the air
9 5. Reproduction does not happen in the water, it occurs PlantsCATEGORY 3 – Gymnosperm – Example: Pine Tree continued4. They also have male and female gametophytes. ________is the male gametophytes and the female are protected in ____________________.5. Reproduction does not happen in the water, it occursthrough the ______._________are the most familiar successful gymnosperms.They have needle-like scalesor leaves to reduce water loss.pollenstructures in seeds.airConifers
10 and their purpose is seed distribution. PlantsCATEGORY 4 – ANGIOSPERMS – Example: DAY LILYa. Evolutionary Advancement - _________________The specialized case is called a ________b. The case can be different forms:1. __________- The male and femalegametophytes develop within the flowerand promote pollination and fertilization.2. _____ - They develop from flowersand their purpose is seed distribution.(animals eat the fruit and poop the seed out away from the parent plant so there is no competition for resources)flowersfruitflowersfruits
12 Angiosperms are the most successful group and CATEGORY 4 – ANGIOSPERMS – Example: DAY LILY_________ContinuedAngiosperms are the most successful group and_________of plants are in this category.4. Angiosperms are broken down into two categories.1. _______________ - Produce seeds with one leaf(iris, lily, tulips, corn, grass)2. ______- Produce seeds with two leaves(sunflowers, broccoli, peanuts, roses, apples,tomatoes)Humans use angiosperms for food, wood,medicines and fibers.90%monocotdicot
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