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BY DAVID T. CHAI, PRESIDENT CHINESEAMERICANHEROES.ORG Anson Burlingame [ ] – His Legacy in US-China Relations.

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Presentation on theme: "BY DAVID T. CHAI, PRESIDENT CHINESEAMERICANHEROES.ORG Anson Burlingame [ ] – His Legacy in US-China Relations."— Presentation transcript:


2 BY DAVID T. CHAI, PRESIDENT CHINESEAMERICANHEROES.ORG Anson Burlingame [ ] – His Legacy in US-China Relations

3 Outline Who Is Anson Burlingame? Conditions in China & US Around 1860s Burlingames Contributions While in China Burlingames Contributions While in the US Burlingames Contributions While in Europe Revoking Burlingame Treaty to pass Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Burlingames Legacy How to Honor His Legacy? 2 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

4 Who is Anson Burlingame? Born in New Berlin, NY 11/14/1820 Graduated from the U. of Michigan & Harvard Law School MA State Senator, 1853-54 US Congressman from MA, 1855-61 US Envoy to China, 1861-67 Chinese Envoy to US, 1867-68 Chinese Envoy to Europe, 1868-70 Died in St. Petersburg, Russia, 2/23/1870 Royal Decree from Emperor Tongzhi of China, 4/10/70 Awarded posthumously Civil-Rank #1 [= Prime Minister] Awarded 10,000 liang [= 500 kg] silver to his family 3 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

5 Royal Decree from Emperor Tongzhi 10/15/2012 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 4 The Royal Decree The Royal Seal The Text Civilian Rank 1 10,000 liang silver

6 Conditions in China – 1840s-1860s Lost First Opium War to United Kingdom, 1839-42 Nanjing Treaty Opened 5 ports to opium trade & extra territoriality Ceded Hong Kong to United Kingdom Gigantic war indemnity of 21 million silver dollars [~1M kg] Huge humiliation to a proud civilization Lost Second Opium War to United Kingdom and France, 1856- 60 Beijing Treaty Opened additional 11 ports for trade, including opium Burned and looted Summer Palace in Beijing Provided foreign legations in Beijing with extra territoriality Allowed indentured coolies to North America Caused internal chaos and instability Taiping Rebellion [, ], 1850-64 5 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

7 Humiliated Carved up Addicted Chaos Conditions in China --- 6 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

8 Conditions in the US – 1840s-1860s Continued westward expansion with new territories & states Not to be left behind, signed Wangxia Treaty [ ] with China, 1844 [under Pres. Tyler] Got the same privileges as United Kingdom thru Most-Favored- Nation However, chose not to legalize opium trade [on paper] Slavery became critical issues Elected Lincoln as president, 1860 Secession of Southern states Civil War, 1861-65 Reconciliation and reconstruction 7 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

9 Gold Rush Sacramento-San Joaquin levees Lincoln Elected Continental RR Civil War Lincoln Assassinated Reconstruction Conditions in the US --- 8 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

10 AB s Contributions As US Envoy to China Developed a Cooperative Policy over existing Concession Doctrine Advocated Chinas sovereignty and territorial integrity Gave the treaty a fair and Christian construction Promoted trade with technology transfers Encouraged Chinese students to study in the US Demonstrated equality of men thru his own court Accepted witness testimonies of local Chinese Convicted David Williams, a white American, to be executed for killing three Chinese men 9 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

11 ABs Contributions As Chinese Envoy to the US Spoke favorably of China as a trade nation Negotiated first equal treaty with US, 1868 – the Burlingame Treaty [aka Burlingame-Seward Treaty] Accept China as an equal Most-Favored-Nation [MFN] Not interfere with internal affairs of either nation Open two-way unlimited immigration Free to reside, travel & study in either nation First Chinese Education Mission to US in 1872 Met Pres. Johnson with his Chinese envoys – Zhigang [ ]and Sun Jiagu [ ] 10 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

12 ABs Contributions As Chinese Envoy to the European Nations Selling his model Burlingame Treaty to: United Kingdom – Queen Victoria France – Emperor Napoleon III Prussia – King William Russia – Tsar Alexander II Introduced Zhigang and Sun Jiagu to European leaders Died in St. Petersburg while serving as Chinese envoy Continued by Zhigang and Sun Jiagu after ABs death: Total of 11 countries over 2 years & 8 months 11 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

13 The Burlingame Mission AB Mission Pres. Johnson Napoleon III Niagara Falls At dinner Thanksgiving dinner

14 Revoking the Burlingame Treaty Construction during/after Civil War needed more cheap labor: Welcomed Chinese immigration Recession after reconstruction needed less labor: Rounded up Chinese & drove them out Tried to stop immigration from China Pres. Hayes vetoed Fifteen Passenger bill in 1879 Would have violated free immigration in Burlingame Treaty Would have nullified a treaty with a friendly nation - MFN Pres. Hayes sent James Angell to China in 1880, to renegotiate the Burlingame Treaty Suspend, but not prohibit, Chinese immigration Reaffirm MFN privileges for Chinese residents in US Oblige US government to protect all MFN privileges 13 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

15 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 -- A Dark Period of US-China Relations Passed by Congress and signed by Pres. Arthur Suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years to 1892 Required identification card for Chinese workers China immediately recalled its Education Mission Scott Act of 1888 Prevented re-entry of Chinese after visiting China Geary Act of 1892 Extended Chinese Exclusion Act for 10 years to 1902 Barred Chinese from bearing witness in court Prevented them from receiving bail in trials In 1902, extended Chinese Exclusion Act indefinitely Finally repealed in 1943 after Pearl Harbor bombing 14 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

16 Anson Burlingames Legacy 15 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012 A renaissance man ahead of his times Principled in the Equality of Men and the Equality of Nations Advocated anti-slavery at home [in US] Developed Cooperative Policy abroad [in China] Practiced soft power thru persuasion over hard power thru guns A world-diplomat From the youngest nation serving the oldest nation A quote from Mark Twain: For he had outgrown the narrow citizenship of a state and become a citizen of the world; and his charity was large enough and his great heart warm enough to feel for all its races and to labor for them. He was a good man, and a very, very great man. America lost a son, and all the world a servant, when he died.

17 How to Recognize ABs Legacy? Let the world know about Anson Burlingame Encourage more publications and talks about his contributions Invest in film/movie documentations Organize conferences to debate on improving US-China relations Strategic partner Vs. economic competitor Cooperation Vs. containment Soft Vs. hard power Create an Anson Burlingame Award Initially for best American for improving US-China relations Later for best person for improving Asia-Pacific region Lobby to rename the San Francisco International Airport the Anson Burlingame International Airport 16 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

18 Lets Learn from Mr. Santayana Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. George Santayana, 1905 17 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012

19 Thank You 18 Anson Burlingame's Legacy 10/15/2012 Additional info: m

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