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Chapter 18.1 The Debate Over Slavery

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1 Chapter 18.1 The Debate Over Slavery
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War… However, it started a whole new debate about the extension of slavery.

2 Remember the last time when…
The last time America expanded this much was the Louisiana Purchase. Question: How did we handle the issue of slavery when it came to the new territories? Compromise of 1820 Missouri = slave state Maine = free state No more slavery north of Missouri

3 So, now that we have more land…
Should we extend the line to the Pacific Ocean? Pres. Polk says yes! Congressman David Wilmot Proposed ending slavery in all new territories gained Called Wilmot Proviso

4 America Begins To Divide
The Northerners Rallied around the Wilmot Proviso Thought it was great way to fulfill dream of Founding Fathers “All Men are Created Equal” The Southerners Were able to vote the proviso down in the Senate. Knew now that slavery would jeopardize the Union. Sectionalism Happens when politicians choose the interests of their region/supporters over the interests of the entire country How do we keep the nation from separating into two sections?

5 Lewis Cass and his Popular Sovereignty
Senator from Michigan Believed that the people of an area should decide whether they wanted to ban or allow slavery. Called popular sovereignty How does it work? If the majority agree to have slavery, then slavery is allowed!

6 Election of 1848 Democrat –Lewis Cass Whigs – Zachary Taylor
Wanted to keep America expanding with popular sovereignty Whigs – Zachary Taylor Popular General from Mexican American War Had never held office or voted Southern slave owner Free Soil – Martin Van Buren Supported the Wilmot Proviso Wanted to stop the spread of slavery to west because they wanted wages to rise so a working class could climb social ladder Free Soil party steals votes from the Democrats that support Cass! Zachary Taylor wins and becomes 12th POTUS

7 President Zachary Taylor
Won a narrow victory in the election Was the 1st POTUS not previously elected to any other public office. First issue he has to deal with… What to do with California? It’s big enough to join the United States as a state. Should it be a free state or a slave state? Right now w/o California 15 free states 15 slave sates

8 Senate Debate of Californian Issue
John C. Calhoun Demanded California to be a slave state William Seward A young senator from New York Hated slavery Would become best friends with Abe Lincoln Henry Clay Argued hard for compromise…again

9 Clay’s Compromise of 1850 Californian admitted as a free state
The Utah and New Mexico Territories could decide the slave issue with popular sovereignty Outlawed slave trade in DC Stricter fugitive slave laws

10 Death of President Taylor
July 4,1850 President Zachary Taylor stood hatless in the sun for hours listening to long-winded speeches Returned to the White House and attempted to cool off by eating cherries, cucumbers and drinking iced milk. Dies 3 days later.

11 13th POTUS -Millard Fillmore
Signed the Compromise of 1850 making it law. Keeps North and South happy….sort of. Problem: The citizens don’t care for Fillmore. Look to others to lead their nation… The South starts to consider naming their own leader…

12 Slavery in 1850

13 Review Questions Who is the 12th POTUS? What is popular sovereignty?
What is the Compromise of 1850? Who is the 13th POTUS?

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