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Primates Anthropology. Primatology Mammalian Characteristics Fur covering body Endothermy Viviparous Mammary glands Omnivorous -Specialized teeth.

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Presentation on theme: "Primates Anthropology. Primatology Mammalian Characteristics Fur covering body Endothermy Viviparous Mammary glands Omnivorous -Specialized teeth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Primates Anthropology

2 Primatology

3 Mammalian Characteristics Fur covering body Endothermy Viviparous Mammary glands Omnivorous -Specialized teeth

4 Primate Characteristics Opposable thumbs Prehensile (Grasping) hands & feet Forward facing eyes (Stereoscopic vision determines depth perception) Large cerebrums Clavicle (Allows arms to increase in mobility) Prehensile tail Rotating forearm Color vision Singular births (Quality, not quantity)

5 Primate Social Features Diurnal Long dependency period (Allows infants to observe & learn) Play or imitation (Important for learning, practicing skills)

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7 Primate Phylogeny

8 Primate Classification Prosimians – premonkeys Lemurs Lorises Tarsiers Anthropoids New world monkeys (Platyrrhines) Old world monkeys (Catarrhines) Lesser apes (Gibbons & Siamangs) Great apes (Orangutans, gorillas, & Chimpanzees Humans

9 Prosimian Traits Better sense of smell than vision (Use scent glands or urine to mark territory) Mobile ears Longer snouts Single offspring (twins are common in some species) Quadrupedal Vertical clinging & leaping Arboreal Nocturnal

10 Kingdom:Animalia Phylum:Chordata Class:Mammalia Order:Primates Suborder:Strepsirrhini

11 Prosimian Types SUBORDER - Strepsirhines (Wet nosed) All have a dental comb (Tightly clustered incisors & canine teethused for grooming) FOUND IN MADAGASCAR Lemurs (vegetarians, females dominate males for food) Indris Aye-ayes FOUND IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Loris (Slow, hand over hand, quadrupedal movement) Bushbabies (Quick, active, kangaroo hop on the ground) SUBORDER - Haplorhines (Dry nosed) FOUND IN PHILIPPINES & INDONESIA Tarsiers – Carnivorous, named from elongated tarsal bones Bushbaby

12 Madagascar

13 Southeast asia Philippines

14 Prosimians

15 Lemurs

16 Indris

17 Aye-Ayes

18 Lorises Walk slowly, hand over hand Also vertical leapers

19 Bushbabies Family : Galagonidae

20 Tarsiers

21 Anthropoids Types Humans Apes Monkeys Traits Rounded braincase Non-mobile outer ears Small flat faces without muzzles Highly developed placenta Dextrous hands Grouping Platyrrhines – New world monkeys (Central & South Americas) Catarrhines – Old world monkeys (Africa, Asia, & Europe)

22 Platyrrhines New world Have broad flat-bridged noses Nostrils facing outward Most have prehensile tail Completely arboreal Two groups Marmosets Tamarins Cebid monkeys

23 Marmosets & Tamarins Very small Have claws instead of nails Give birth to twins Some Monogamy, others Polyandry Omnivores (fruit, tree sap, insects) Fathers aid in parental care (carrying of young)

24 Marmosets Name means a grotesque figure or ugly little boy genera: Callithrix

25 Tamarins

26 Cebids Larger than marmosets Single offspring Ominvores Capuchin monkey Howler monkeys

27 Cebids New world monkeys Preyed on by ocelots and jaguars Communicate by urinating on themselves and rubbing a tree Thumbs that cannot grip against the fingers

28 Catarrhines Old world = CERCOPITHECOIDS Some arboreal, some terrestrial, some both

29 Colobine Monkeys Asian langurs African colobus Langur Monkey

30 Colobus

31 Colobine Monkeys Arboreal Herbivorous – leaves & seeds Mothers allow other group members to care for their infants shortly after birth Males not in group will kill infants

32 Cercopithecine Monkeys Exhibit sexual dimorphism Males larger than females Males have longer canine teeth Males are more aggressive Depend more on fruit than colobine monkeys Have cheek pouches to carry/store food Have ischial callosities to make sitting in trees or land for a long time more comfortable, and for sexual displays Mandrillus sphinx

33 Mandrill Baboons

34 Japanese & Rhesus Macaques

35 Ischial Callosities (Callouses)

36 Hominoids Lesser apes – hylobates Great apes – pongids Humans – hominids General Traits Large brains (Cerebral cortex) Long arms Short, broad trunks No tails

37 Hylobates – Lesser apes Gibbons & Siamangs Omnivores (Fruit, leaves, & insects) Brachiators Monogamous No sexual dimorphism

38 Gibbons

39 Siamangs Name means Dwells in trees

40 Pongids Orangutans Gorillas Chimpanzees

41 Orangutans Found only in Sumatra & Borneo Name means people of the forest Sexually dimorphic (Males ~200 lbs larger with cheek pads, throat pouches, and beards) Heaviest arboreal primates Eat mainly fruit Live solitary lives Maybe due to lack of food Maybe easier to hide from human predators Maybe large size prevents natural predation, so no need to live in groups

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43 Gorilla Herbivorous Have unique nose prints Largest of the apes (Males up to 450 lbs and females up to 250 lbs) Knuckle walking to distribute weight Dominant male called a silverback Average adult male eats 50 lbs of food per day

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47 Chimpanzees From the genus Pan Arboreal & terrestrial (move best on the ground) Uses tools such as leaves for personal hygiene or drinking water Have ability to learn sign language Eat lizards, birds and actively hunt larger animals (Colobus monkeys & baboons) Knuckle-walk

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