Anthropoids A.k.a., the haplorhines Dry, unconnected noses; like yours Africa, Asia, South America (originally) Monkeys, apes and humans – ***prosimians are NOT “monkeys” Two groups – Catarrhines (monkeys and apes in the Old World) – Platyrrhines (just monkeys, and in the New World only)
Rhine = nose Catarrhine: Old World Primate Nostrils oriented downward Platyrrhine: New World Primate Nostrils oriented sideways
Ceboidea FamilySubfamilyCommon NamesBody sizeGeneral Social Pattern Some Special Features Cebidae Squirrel monkey _______________ Capuchin monkey Small _________ Medium Large, multi-male, multi-female groups - strictly seasonal breeding _______________________ - large brain - tool use -adaptable & resourceful (like Old World macaques) - weakly prehensile tail Callitrichidae tamarins, marmosets smallpolyandry twins, high paternal investment, reproductive suppression AtelidaePithecinaeUakaris & SakisMediumSocially monogamous Other? red-faced uakari:sexual selection? Swamp dwellers (hard to study) AlouattinaeHowler monkeysLargeOne-male, multi- female groups ("harems") - LOUD howling - prehensile tail (strong!) AtelinaeSpider monkey, wooly monkey, woolly spider monkey Very largeLarge fusion-fission communities - prehensile tails (strong & dextrous!) Interesting social patterns (kind of like chimps and bonobos)
Cebids vs. Callitrichids *alloparental care of infants PRESENT in Capuchins, acc. To more recent Perry!!!
Callitrichids Pygmy marmoset (smallest primate) juvenile golden lion tamarin
Callitrichids Common Marmoset Golden Lion Tamarins Moustached Tamarin Cotton Top Tamarin
Callitrichids: New Discovery Wied’s marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii) Usually born as twins Chimerism: an exchange of cells between twins early during embryonic development; result is that most of these monkeys have tissues grown from their twin's cells Germ line too: marmoset fathers can sire their own children and their nephews
Colobines vs. Howlers Colobines: gut with adaptations for digesting cellulose Howlers: not so; other adaptations (some behavioral ones…) instead
Hominoidea: the Apes HylobatidaeHominidae CategoryThe “lesser” apes The “great” apesThe “human” apes Common names Gibbons and siamangs OrangutansGorillasChimpanzeesBonoboshumans DistributionSoutheast Asia Borneo, Sumatra -Lowland gorilla in West Central Africa -Mountain gorilla in volcanic mountains bordering Rwanda, Uganda, and Congo Tropical rainforests and tropical forests of West, East, and North-central Africa Central African Rainforests South of the big bend of the Congo River Global (plus?) SizeLarge (5-11 kg) Huge (35-70 kg) Huge (90-150 kg) Huge (30-45 kg) Huge (30-45 kg) Huge Grouping Pattern Socially monogamous SolitaryGroup (1 alpha male, his ‘harem,’ and their kids) Large fission- fusion communities Large multimal/ multifemae communitie s
Overview Order: Primates ProsimiansAnthropoids Lemur GroupLoris Group Tarsiers? Platyrrhines (NWM) Catarrhines (OWM and apes) callitrichids atelids cebids cercopithecoidshominoids colobines cercopithecines “lesser apes” hylobat “great apes” Chimp human common ancestor (lived 6-7 mya) gorillas orangutans chimphumanbonobo Lots of fossils Very few to no fossils
Primates: Variables Lots of morphological variation – Size, colors, dentition Lots of variation in social group structure (many males and many females in a group vs. monogamous pairs, etc.) Lots of variance in social activity (solitary aye aye vs. the übergregarious capuchin) Lots of variance in locomotion Lots of variance in diets Lots of variance in susceptibility to predation What accounts for this variance?
Primate Behavioral Ecologists Primatologists figure out relationships between ecology, morphology, behavior, and sociality Social variables (e.g., dominance and subordinance, fighting, mating, genetic relatedness), ecological variables (e.g., seasonal foods, the presence of predators), morphological variables (e.g., a very long gut), etc.
Some Examples Colobines (OWM) and howler monkeys (NWM) eating leaves, but having very different energy levels Male gorillas having proportionately larger teeth than females, even though they eat leaves, not meat When newly joining a group, male langurs will selectively kill most or all infants who are still nursing, then immediately mate with the mothers (who agree to it!)