Presentation on theme: "A Survey of the Living Primates"— Presentation transcript:
1A Survey of the Living Primates Chapter 6A Survey of the Living Primates
2Chapter Outline Primates Characteristics Primate Adaptations Geographical Distribution and HabitatsDiet and Teeth
3Chapter Outline Locomotion Primate Classification A Survey of the Living PrimatesEndangered Primates
4Primates As MammalsThere are approximately 190 species of nonhuman primatesPrimates belong to:Vertebrate class - MammaliaSubgroup of placental mammals.
5Prosimians Members of a suborder of Primates, the Prosimii. Traditionally, the suborder includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
6PrimatesMembers of the order of mammals Primates, which includes prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans.
7Anthropoids Members of a suborder of Primates, the Anthropoidea. Traditionally, the suborder includes monkeys, apes, and humans.
8Primates Characteristics Fur (body hair)Long gestation followed by live birthHomeothermy, the ability to maintain a constant body temperatureIncreased brain sizeCapacity for learning and behavioral flexibility.
9Primate Limbs A tendency towards erect posture. Hands and feet possess grasping ability.Features of the hands and feet:5 digits on hand and feetOpposable thumbpartially opposable great toeTactile pads enriched with sensory nerve fibers at the ends of digits
10Primate LimbsA horse’s front foot, homologous with a human hand, has undergone reduction from 5 digits to one.
11Primate LimbsRaccoons are capable of considerable manual dexterity and can readily pick up small objects with one hand, they have no opposable thumb.
12Primate LimbsMany monkeys are able to grasp objects with an opposable thumb, while others have very reduced thumbs.
13Primate LimbsHumans are capable of a “precision grip.”
14Primate LimbsChimpanzees with their reduced thumbs are capable of a precision grip but frequently use a modified form.
15Primate Senses and the Brain Color vision is a characteristic of all diurnal primates, nocturnal primates lack color vision.Depth perception is made possible by eyes positioned forward on the front of the face.Decreased reliance on the sense of smell.The brain has expanded in size and become increasingly complex.
17Primate Maturation Longer periods of gestation Reduced numbers of offspringDelayed maturationExtension of the entire life span.
18Primate Learning and Behavior Have a greater dependence on flexible, learned behavior.Tend to live in social groups.Males are permanent members of many primate social groups, a situation unusual among mammals.
19Base of an Adolescent Chimpanzee Skull In an adult animal, the bones of the skull would be fused together and would not appear as separate elements as shown here.
20Question Which of the following is not a primate characteristic? stereoscopic visionhighly developed sense of smellorthograde or upright postureprehensility
21Answer: bA highly developed sense of smell is not a primate characteristic.
22Question Binocular vision in primates contributes to color vision. lateral vision.panoramic vision.stereoscopic vision.
23Answer: dBinocular vision in primates contributes to stereoscopic vision.
24Primate AdaptationPrimate anatomical traits evolved as adaptations to environmental circumstances.Arboreal HypothesisVisual Predation HypothesisAngiosperm Radiation Hypothesis
25Arboreal HypothesisArboreal living was the most important factor in the evolution of primates.Prehensile hand is adapted to climbing in the trees.A variety of foods led to the omnivorous diet and generalized dentition.
26Visual Predation Hypothesis Primates may have first adapted to shrubby forest undergrowth and the lowest tiers of the forest canopy.Forward facing eyes enabled primates to judge distance when grabbing for insects.Flowering plants may have influenced primate evolution.
27Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis Suggests the basic primate traits were developed in conjunction with the rise of the angiosperms (flowering plants) that began around 140 mya.Flowering plants provide numerous resources for primates, including nectar, seeds, and fruits.
28Geographical Distribution of Living Nonhuman Primates
29Geographical Distribution of Living Nonhuman Primates
30Primate HabitatsMost live in tropical or semitropical areas of the new and old worlds.Most are arboreal, living in forest or woodland habitats.No nonhuman primate is adapted to a fully terrestrial environment; all spend some time in the trees.
31Primate Diet and TeethGenerally omnivorous, reflected in their generalized dentition.Most eat a combination of fruits, leaves, and insects.Most have four types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars and molars.
32Dental FormulaThe human maxilla (a) illustrates a dental formula characteristic of Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. The Cebus maxilla (b) shows the dental formula typical of most New World monkeys.
33Primate LocomotionMost are quadrupedal, using all four limbs in their locomotion.Arm swinging is found among the apes.Prehensile tails, found only among the new world monkeys, are used as an aid to locomotion.
34Differences in Anatomy and Limb Proportions and Locomotor Patterns
35Differences in Anatomy and Limb Proportions and Locomotor Patterns
36Differences in Anatomy and Limb Proportions and Locomotor Patterns
37Differences in Anatomy and Limb Proportions and Locomotor Patterns
39Human Chromosome 2Human chromosome 2 has banding patterns that correspond to those of chimpanzee chromosomes 12 and 13.These similarities suggest that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of these two ape chromosomes during the course of hominid evolution.
40Revised Partial Classification of the Primates The terms Prosimii and Anthropoidea have been replaced by Strepsirhini and Haplorhini. The tarsier is included in the suborder with monkeys.
41Prosimians The most primitive of the primates. Characteristics: Reliance on olfactionLaterally placed eyesShorter gestation and maturation periodsDental specialization called the "dental comb”
42RhinariumThis cat’s rhinarium enhances his sense of smell.
43Dental CombProsimian dental comb, formed by forward projecting incisors and canines.
44LemursFound on the island of Madagascar and other islands off the coast of Africa.Extinct elsewhere in the world.Characteristics:Larger lemurs are diurnal and eat vegetable foods: fruit, leaves, buds, and bark.Smaller lemurs are nocturnal and insectivorous (insect -feeding).
50LorisesFound in tropical forests and woodlands of India, Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Africa.Characteristics:Use a climbing quadrupedalism.Some are insectivorous; others supplement their diet with fruit, leaves, gums, and slugs.Females frequently form associations for foraging or in sharing the same sleeping nest.
51TarsiersSmall nocturnal primates found on the islands of southeast Asia.Eat insects and small vertebrates which they catch by leaping from branches.Basic social pattern appears to be a family unit consisting of a mated pair and their offspring.
53Question Which of the following is NOT true of tarsiers? They are nocturnal.They are insectivorous.They live in groups of individuals.They can rotate their heads almost 180 degrees.
54Answer: cTarsiers do not live in groups of individuals.
55Anthropoids (Monkeys, Apes and Humans) Common traits:Larger brain and body sizeReduced reliance on the sense of smellGreater degree of color visionBony plate at the back of the eye socketDifferent female reproductive anatomyLonger gestation and maturation periodsFused mandible
56Monkeys Represent about 70% of all primate species. Divided into two groups separated by geography and several million years of evolutionary history:New world monkeysOld world monkeys
57New World Monkeys Almost exclusively arboreal. Found in southern Mexico and central and south America.Two families: Callitrichidae and Cebid
58New World MonkeysPrince Bernhard’s titi monkey (discovered in 2002)
63New World Monkeys: Callitrichidae Live in families composed of a mated pair or a female and two adult males, plus the offspring.Males are involved with infant care.
64New World Monkeys: Cebid Possess prehensile tails.Most live in groups of both sexes and all ages.Others live as monogamous pairs with subadult offspring.
65Old World MonkeysHabitats range from tropical forests to semiarid desert to snow-covered areas in Japan and china.Characteristics:Most quadrupedal and arborealAll belong to the Cercopithecidae family.Divided into subfamilies, the cercopithecines and the colobines.
66Geographical Distribution of Modern Old World Monkeys
69Characteristics Distinguishing Hominoids From Monkeys Larger body sizeAbsence of a tailShortened trunkMore complex behaviorMore complex brainIncreased period of infant development and dependency
70Gibbons and Siamangs Found in the tropical areas of southeast Asia. Adaptations for brachiation may be related to feeding while hanging from branches.Diet is largely fruit with leaves, flowers, and insects.Basic social unit is a monogamous pair and their offspring.Males and females delineate their territories with whoops and “songs”.
73Orangutans (Pogo pygmaeus) Found in heavily forested areas of Borneo and Sumatra.Almost completely arboreal.males = 200 lbs, females = 100 lbsPronounced sexual dimorphism.SolitaryPrincipally frugivorous (feed-eating).
74Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla) Largest of the living primates.Confined to forested regions of central Africa.Males can weigh up to 400 pounds, females 200 pounds.Primarily terrestrial, using a posture called “knuckle –walking”.Groups consist of one large silverback male, a few adult females, and their subadult offspring.
75Geographical Distribution of Modern African Apes
78Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) Found in equatorial Africa.Anatomically similar to gorillas particularly in limb proportions and upper-body shape.Locomotion includes knuckle-walking on the ground and brachiation in the trees.Eat a variety of plant and animal foods.Large communities of as many as 50 individuals.
80Bonobos (Pan paniscus) Only found in an area south of the Zaire river.Population is believed to only number a few thousand individuals.Exploit the same foods as chimps, including occasional small mammals.Male-female bonds constitute the societal core.Sexuality includes frequent copulations throughout the female's estrous cycle.
82Humans (Homo Sapiens) The only living species in the family Hominidae. Human teeth are typical primate teeth.Dependence on vision for orientation to the world
83Humans (Homo Sapiens) Flexible limbs and grasping hands Omnivorous dietCognitive abilities are the result of dramatic increases in brain size.Bipedal
84Endangered PrimatesOver half of all living primates are endangered, many face immediate extinction.Three reasons:Habitat destructionHunting for foodLive capture for export or local trade
85Hunting of PrimatesIn West Africa the most serious problem is hunting to feed the growing human population.Estimated that thousands of primates, are killed and sold for meat every year.Primates are also killed for commercial products.
86QuestionWhich of the following is not a reason that nonhuman primates are endangered?habitat destructionhunting for foodlive capture for either the exotic pet trade or biomedical researchestablishment of biological reserves
87Answer: dThe establishment of biological reserves is not a reason that nonhuman primates are endangered.