Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 A Survey of the Living Primates. Chapter Outline Primates Characteristics Primate Adaptations Geographical Distribution and Habitats Diet and."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 A Survey of the Living Primates
Chapter Outline Primates Characteristics Primate Adaptations Geographical Distribution and Habitats Diet and Teeth
Chapter Outline Locomotion Primate Classification A Survey of the Living Primates Endangered Primates
Primates As Mammals There are approximately 190 species of nonhuman primates Primates belong to: Vertebrate class - Mammalia Subgroup of placental mammals.
Prosimians Members of a suborder of Primates, the Prosimii. Traditionally, the suborder includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
Primates Members of the order of mammals Primates, which includes prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans.
Anthropoids Members of a suborder of Primates, the Anthropoidea. Traditionally, the suborder includes monkeys, apes, and humans.
Primates Characteristics Fur (body hair) Long gestation followed by live birth Homeothermy, the ability to maintain a constant body temperature Increased brain size Capacity for learning and behavioral flexibility.
Primate Limbs A tendency towards erect posture. Hands and feet possess grasping ability. Features of the hands and feet: 5 digits on hand and feet Opposable thumb partially opposable great toe Tactile pads enriched with sensory nerve fibers at the ends of digits
Primate Limbs A horse’s front foot, homologous with a human hand, has undergone reduction from 5 digits to one.
Primate Limbs Raccoons are capable of considerable manual dexterity and can readily pick up small objects with one hand, they have no opposable thumb.
Primate Limbs Many monkeys are able to grasp objects with an opposable thumb, while others have very reduced thumbs.
Primate Limbs Humans are capable of a “precision grip.”
Primate Limbs Chimpanzees with their reduced thumbs are capable of a precision grip but frequently use a modified form.
Primate Senses and the Brain Color vision is a characteristic of all diurnal primates, nocturnal primates lack color vision. Depth perception is made possible by eyes positioned forward on the front of the face. Decreased reliance on the sense of smell. The brain has expanded in size and become increasingly complex.
Binocular Vision in Primates
Primate Maturation Longer periods of gestation Reduced numbers of offspring Delayed maturation Extension of the entire life span.
Primate Learning and Behavior Have a greater dependence on flexible, learned behavior. Tend to live in social groups. Males are permanent members of many primate social groups, a situation unusual among mammals.
Base of an Adolescent Chimpanzee Skull In an adult animal, the bones of the skull would be fused together and would not appear as separate elements as shown here.
Question Which of the following is not a primate characteristic? a) stereoscopic vision b) highly developed sense of smell c) orthograde or upright posture d) prehensility
Answer: b A highly developed sense of smell is not a primate characteristic.
Question Binocular vision in primates contributes to a) color vision. b) lateral vision. c) panoramic vision. d) stereoscopic vision.
Answer: d Binocular vision in primates contributes to stereoscopic vision.
Arboreal Hypothesis Arboreal living was the most important factor in the evolution of primates. Prehensile hand is adapted to climbing in the trees. A variety of foods led to the omnivorous diet and generalized dentition.
Visual Predation Hypothesis Primates may have first adapted to shrubby forest undergrowth and the lowest tiers of the forest canopy. Forward facing eyes enabled primates to judge distance when grabbing for insects. Flowering plants may have influenced primate evolution.
Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis Suggests the basic primate traits were developed in conjunction with the rise of the angiosperms (flowering plants) that began around 140 mya. Flowering plants provide numerous resources for primates, including nectar, seeds, and fruits.
Geographical Distribution of Living Nonhuman Primates
Primate Habitats Most live in tropical or semitropical areas of the new and old worlds. Most are arboreal, living in forest or woodland habitats. No nonhuman primate is adapted to a fully terrestrial environment; all spend some time in the trees.
Primate Diet and Teeth Generally omnivorous, reflected in their generalized dentition. Most eat a combination of fruits, leaves, and insects. Most have four types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars and molars.
Dental Formula The human maxilla (a) illustrates a dental formula characteristic of Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. The Cebus maxilla (b) shows the dental formula typical of most New World monkeys.
Primate Locomotion Most are quadrupedal, using all four limbs in their locomotion. Arm swinging is found among the apes. Prehensile tails, found only among the new world monkeys, are used as an aid to locomotion.
Differences in Anatomy and Limb Proportions and Locomotor Patterns
Human Chromosome 2 Human chromosome 2 has banding patterns that correspond to those of chimpanzee chromosomes 12 and 13. These similarities suggest that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of these two ape chromosomes during the course of hominid evolution.
Revised Partial Classification of the Primates The terms Prosimii and Anthropoidea have been replaced by Strepsirhini and Haplorhini. The tarsier is included in the suborder with monkeys.
Prosimians The most primitive of the primates. Characteristics: Reliance on olfaction Laterally placed eyes Shorter gestation and maturation periods Dental specialization called the "dental comb”
Rhinarium This cat’s rhinarium enhances his sense of smell.
Dental Comb Prosimian dental comb, formed by forward projecting incisors and canines.
Lemurs Found on the island of Madagascar and other islands off the coast of Africa. Extinct elsewhere in the world. Characteristics: Larger lemurs are diurnal and eat vegetable foods: fruit, leaves, buds, and bark. Smaller lemurs are nocturnal and insectivorous (insect -feeding).
Geographical Distribution of Modern Lemurs
Ring Tailed Lemur
Sifakas in Their Native Habitat in Madagascar
Galago or “Bush Baby”
Lorises Found in tropical forests and woodlands of India, Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Africa. Characteristics: Use a climbing quadrupedalism. Some are insectivorous; others supplement their diet with fruit, leaves, gums, and slugs. Females frequently form associations for foraging or in sharing the same sleeping nest.
Tarsiers Small nocturnal primates found on the islands of southeast Asia. Eat insects and small vertebrates which they catch by leaping from branches. Basic social pattern appears to be a family unit consisting of a mated pair and their offspring.
Tarsier Geographical distribution of tarsiers.
Question Which of the following is NOT true of tarsiers? a) They are nocturnal. b) They are insectivorous. c) They live in groups of individuals. d) They can rotate their heads almost 180 degrees.
Answer: c Tarsiers do not live in groups of individuals.
Anthropoids (Monkeys, Apes and Humans) Common traits: Larger brain and body size Reduced reliance on the sense of smell Greater degree of color vision Bony plate at the back of the eye socket Different female reproductive anatomy Longer gestation and maturation periods Fused mandible
Monkeys Represent about 70% of all primate species. Divided into two groups separated by geography and several million years of evolutionary history: New world monkeys Old world monkeys
New World Monkeys Almost exclusively arboreal. Found in southern Mexico and central and south America. Two families: Callitrichidae and Cebid
New World Monkeys Prince Bernhard’s titi monkey (discovered in 2002)
New World Monkeys Female muriqui with infant
New World monkeys. Squirrel monkeys
New World monkeys. White-faced capuchins
New World monkeys. Male uakari
New World Monkeys: Callitrichidae Live in families composed of a mated pair or a female and two adult males, plus the offspring. Males are involved with infant care.
New World Monkeys: Cebid Possess prehensile tails. Most live in groups of both sexes and all ages. Others live as monogamous pairs with subadult offspring.
Old World Monkeys Habitats range from tropical forests to semiarid desert to snow-covered areas in Japan and china. Characteristics: Most quadrupedal and arboreal All belong to the Cercopithecidae family. Divided into subfamilies, the cercopithecines and the colobines.
Geographical Distribution of Modern Old World Monkeys
Adult Male Sykes Monkey
Savanna Baboons (a) Male (b) Female
Characteristics Distinguishing Hominoids From Monkeys Larger body size Absence of a tail Shortened trunk More complex behavior More complex brain Increased period of infant development and dependency
Gibbons and Siamangs Found in the tropical areas of southeast Asia. Adaptations for brachiation may be related to feeding while hanging from branches. Diet is largely fruit with leaves, flowers, and insects. Basic social unit is a monogamous pair and their offspring. Males and females delineate their territories with whoops and “songs”.
Geographical Distribution of Modern Asian Apes
Orangutans (Pogo pygmaeus) Found in heavily forested areas of Borneo and Sumatra. Almost completely arboreal. males = 200 lbs, females = 100 lbs Pronounced sexual dimorphism. Solitary Principally frugivorous (feed-eating).
Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla) Largest of the living primates. Confined to forested regions of central Africa. Males can weigh up to 400 pounds, females 200 pounds. Primarily terrestrial, using a posture called “knuckle –walking”. Groups consist of one large silverback male, a few adult females, and their subadult offspring.
Geographical Distribution of Modern African Apes
Western Lowland Gorillas (a) Male (b) Female
Mountain Gorillas (a) Male (b) Female
Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) Found in equatorial Africa. Anatomically similar to gorillas particularly in limb proportions and upper-body shape. Locomotion includes knuckle-walking on the ground and brachiation in the trees. Eat a variety of plant and animal foods. Large communities of as many as 50 individuals.
Chimpanzees (a) Male (b) Female
Bonobos (Pan paniscus) Only found in an area south of the Zaire river. Population is believed to only number a few thousand individuals. Exploit the same foods as chimps, including occasional small mammals. Male-female bonds constitute the societal core. Sexuality includes frequent copulations throughout the female's estrous cycle.
Female Bonobos With Young
Humans (Homo Sapiens) The only living species in the family Hominidae. Human teeth are typical primate teeth. Dependence on vision for orientation to the world
Humans (Homo Sapiens) Flexible limbs and grasping hands Omnivorous diet Cognitive abilities are the result of dramatic increases in brain size. Bipedal
Endangered Primates Over half of all living primates are endangered, many face immediate extinction. Three reasons: Habitat destruction Hunting for food Live capture for export or local trade
Hunting of Primates In West Africa the most serious problem is hunting to feed the growing human population. Estimated that thousands of primates, are killed and sold for meat every year. Primates are also killed for commercial products.
Question Which of the following is not a reason that nonhuman primates are endangered? a) habitat destruction b) hunting for food c) live capture for either the exotic pet trade or biomedical research d) establishment of biological reserves
Answer: d The establishment of biological reserves is not a reason that nonhuman primates are endangered.