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The Primates Key Questions Where do humans fit in the world of living things? What are the characteristics of primates? How are humans like the other.

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Presentation on theme: "The Primates Key Questions Where do humans fit in the world of living things? What are the characteristics of primates? How are humans like the other."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The Primates

3 Key Questions Where do humans fit in the world of living things? What are the characteristics of primates? How are humans like the other primates? How are we unique?

4 Taxonomy A classification system based on similarities and differences Phenetic Taxonomy = Following Linnaeus, based on existing phenotypic features and adaptive behaviors Cladistics = Classification system based on order of evolutionary branching

5 Taxonomy of Humans & Chimps HumanChimpanzee KingdomAnimalia PhylumChordata ClassMammalia OrderPrimates FamilyHominidaePongidae GenusHomoPan SpeciesSapiensTroglodytes

6 Class Mammalia Today, 19 Orders & over 4000 Species! 3 major subgroups: 1. Egg-laying (duck-billed platypus) 2. Pouched (kangaroo, opossum) 3. Placental Exs. of Placental Orders other than Primates: Rodents (rats, squirrels, beavers) Carnivores (bears, dogs, cats) Insectivores (shrews, moles) Grazing-browsing (cows, hippos, deer, horses, sheep, goats)

7 Characteristics of Placental Mammals 1.Body hair 2.Relatively long gestation period followed by live birth 3. Ability to maintain constant internal body temperature = “warm-blooded”

8 Characteristics of Placental Mammals (cont.) 4. Increased brain size 5. Mammary glands = origin of the term “Mammal” 6. Different types of teeth = incisors, canines, premolars, molars 7. Considerable capacity for learning and behavioral flexibility

9 Primate Taxonomy PRIMATES (order) PROSIMIANSANTHROPOIDEA (suborder) PlatyrrhiniCatarrhini (flat nose)(downward nose) CercopithecoideaHOMINOIDEA Lesser Apes Great Apes HOMINIDAE (family) ProsimiansNew World Old WorldGibbons OrangutanHUMAN Monkeys MonkeysSiamangs Gorilla (species) Chimpanzee Bonobo

10 Prosimians a.Fat-tailed galago (mainland Africa) b.Ruffed lemur (Madagascar) c.Sifaka (Madagascar) d.Ring-tailed lemur (Madagascar) e.Mouse lemur (Madagascar) f.Slow loris (South Asia) g.Aye-aye (Islands off Madagascar)

11 Anthropoids a. Spider monkey (NW monkey) b. Saki monkey (NW monkey) c. Drill (OW terrestrial monkey) d. Tamarin (NW marmoset) e. Colobus (OW arboreal monkey) f. Gibbon (OW lesser ape) g. Gorilla (OW great ape)

12 Primate Characteristics: Hands & Feet Enhancement of free mobility of the digits, especially of the thumb (opposability) and big toe Both used for grasping = Prehensile Replacement of sharp, compressed claws by flat nails; development of very sensitive tactile pads on the digits

13 Gripping Tool Use

14 Prehensile Tail

15 Primate Characteristics: Brain size & Smell * Progressive shortening of the snout and reduction in the sense of smell * Progressive expansion and elaboration of the brain, especially of the cerebral cortex

16 Primate Characteristics: Vision Elaboration of the visual apparatus Development of Stereoscopic Vision (3-D) Bony sockets enclose eye nerves and muscles

17 Primate Characteristics: Dentition * Retention of all tooth types * Old World Anthropoid Dental Formula = x 2=

18 Primate Characteristics: Extended Gestation & Maturation 1. Primates are born at earlier stages of development than many other animals 2. Prolongation of postnatal life periods 3. Humans are born at a particularly early stage because of their larger brain; if born later, the baby’s head would be too large for the mother’s pelvis

19 Primate Characteristics: Body Stance Progressive development of upright body stance leading to bipedalism

20 Primate Characteristics: Summary Large brains 3-D vision, Reduced Sense of Smell Flexible shoulder joints, Vertical Positioning of Trunk Hands and feet with five digits Grasping thumb

21 Primate Characteristics: Summary (cont.) Flat fingernails instead of claws Generalized dentition Extended Gestation and Maturation Strong Maternal-Offspring Bond High Degree of Socialization

22 Primate Species 166 species currently identified Most are tree dwellers Most are herbivores (eat fruit or leaves) Some are omnivores (eat anything)

23 Primate Distribution

24 Primate Classification Primates are divided into two main Suborders: 1. Prosimians: Lemurs, Lorises,Tarsiers 2. Anthropoids: NW & OW Monkeys, Apes, Humans

25 Primate Taxonomy PRIMATES (order) PROSIMIANSANTHROPOIDEA (suborder) PlatyrrhiniCatarrhini (flat nose)(downward nose) CercopithecoideaHOMINOIDEA Lesser Apes Great Apes HOMINIDAE (family) ProsimiansNew World Old WorldGibbons OrangutanHUMAN Monkeys MonkeysSiamangs Gorilla (species) Chimpanzee Bonobo

26 Lemurs, Tarsiers, Aye-Ayes, Lori

27 Lemurs

28 Ringtail Lemurs

29 Lori

30 Aye-Aye

31 The aye-aye shown here lives on the island of Madagascar. It is a very specialized insect-eater. Large eyes & good climbing abilities. The aye-aye, and most other prosimians, differ from monkeys and apes in having a moist area of skin on the nose.

32 Tarsier

33 Large eyes, active at night Like most of the prosimians, good grasping ability & nails Nails on all fingers and most toes, but there are specialized claws on the feet used for grooming called "toilet claws"

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36 Tarsier

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38 Platyrrhine Monkeys Platyrrhines Flat noses Nostrils point sideways Many have prehensile tails Live in South and Central America

39 Platyrrhine Noses

40 Platyrrhine Monkeys: Red-Howler & Spider Monkeys

41 Platyrrhine Monkeys : Capuchin Monkey

42 Platyrrhine Monkeys: Tamarins

43 Catarrhine Monkeys Downward- pointing nostrils Evolved and found in Africa and Asia

44 Catarrhine Nose

45 Catarrhines Divided into two Superfamilies: 1. Old World Monkeys 2. Hominoids Lack tails, have larger skulls, & walk partially upright Include Gibbons, Gorillas, Orangutans, Humans, & Chimpanzees

46 Catarrhine Monkeys: Mandrill and Diana

47 Terrestrial Old World Monkeys: Baboon

48 Hominoid Taxonomy

49 Range of Hominoids

50 Lesser Ape: Gibbon

51 Great Ape: Orangutan

52 Great Ape: Gorilla

53 Gorillas: Knuckle Walking

54 Great Ape: Chimpanzee

55 Dettwyler, Chs. 9 & 10 In the United States or in your culture, why are some activities designated as “feminine” and others “masculine”? Cross-culturally, are there some activities that are always performed by women? By men? Do you think this gendered division of labor is based on biological differences or on cultural belief systems, or both? Give an example. Why would the death of a mother in child birth be so much more disruptive to a family than the death of an infant of young child? If you had to set priorities for spending money on improving health care in Dogo, would you put maternal or infant health care first? Why?


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