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THE PRIMATES © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Origins – tree shrews Not Primates but closely related Similar to the common ancestor of all placental mammals Small, insectivorous, arboreal mammals Tree shrew (Lyonogale tana) © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Primate characteristics Arborial Grasping hands Finger nails & finger pads with ridges Binocular vision Diurnal Colour vision Large brain High degree of parental care Long childhood © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The Prosimians Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta)
The Prosimians Muzzel Immobile upper lip Developed sense of smell Ears can orientate Evolved from about 63 Ma © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The Old World Monkeys Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
The Old World Monkeys Narrow nose Tail (when present) never prehensile Mostly diurnal © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The New World Monkeys Howler monkey (Alouatta sp.)
The New World Monkeys Split from the old world monkeys about 40 Ma Flat-nosed More premolars Long tails, some prehensile © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The Apes Gibbon (Hylobates lar) Gorilla gorilla Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) © JGI
The Gibbons From SE Asia Small 5–7kg Brachiators No tail Longevity: years © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The Apes - Orangutans From SE Asia Large ape females 40-50kg males kg Very flexible in their locomotion No tail Longevity: up to 35 years © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The Apes – Gorillas and Chimpanzees Large Chimps 30-40kg Gorilla female 90kg male 160kg Knuckle walk and climb No tail Chimps use simple tools Longevity 40 years Gorilla herbivore Chimp Omnivore © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
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