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Inside the shell of the amniotic egg are several extraembryonic membranes that function in gas exchange, waste storage, and the transfer of stored nutrients.

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Presentation on theme: "Inside the shell of the amniotic egg are several extraembryonic membranes that function in gas exchange, waste storage, and the transfer of stored nutrients."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Inside the shell of the amniotic egg are several extraembryonic membranes that function in gas exchange, waste storage, and the transfer of stored nutrients to the embryo. –These develop from tissues layers that grow out from the embryo. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig

3 –Amniotic egg (leathery). –Scales containing the protein keratin waterproof the skin. –Reptiles obtain all their oxygen with lungs; no cutaneous respiration unlike amphibians. Reptile Adaptations for Terrestrial Life

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5 Evolution of Mammals Dinosaurs became extinct at the Cretaceous- Tertiary (K-T)boundary ~ 65 mya (end of Mesozoic). Mammalian evolution began over 220 mya from reptilian stock – the therapsids. Remained small, and “out of the lime light” until dinosaurs became extinct. Extensive diversification in Cenozoic. Extant mammals - ~ 4,500 species.

6 The Evolution of Primates

7 Early Cenozoic Primates The earliest primates date to the first part of the Cenozoic (65-54 m.y.a.). The Eocene (54-38 m.y.a.) was the epoch of prosimians with at least 60 different genera in two families. –The omomyid family lived in North America, Europe, and Asia and may be ancestral to all anthropoids. –The adapid family was ancestral to the lemur-loris line.

8 Omomyid An artist’s reconstruction of Shoshonius, a member of the Eocene omomyid family.

9 Aegyptopithecus - lived about 33 MYA (million years ago) in Egypt - sometimes called the “Dawn Ape” - arboreal, probably ate fruit - link between earlier primates and apes

10 Dryopithecus Dryopithecus lived in Europe during the middle and late Miocene. This group probably includes the common ancestor of the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs) and the great apes. Dryopithecus has the Y-5 arrangement of molar cusps typical of Dryopithecus and of hominoids.

11 Primate Classification Primates are divided into two main Suborders: 1. Prosimians: Lemurs, Lorises,Tarsiers 2. Anthropoids: NW & OW Monkeys, Apes, Humans

12 Prosimians a.Fat-tailed galago (mainland Africa) b.Ruffed lemur (Madagascar) c.Sifaka (Madagascar) d.Ring-tailed lemur (Madagascar) e.Mouse lemur (Madagascar) f.Slow loris (South Asia) g.Aye-aye (Islands off Madagascar)

13 Anthropoids a. Spider monkey (NW monkey) b. Saki monkey (NW monkey) c. Drill (OW terrestrial monkey) d. Tamarin (NW marmoset) e. Colobus (OW arboreal monkey) f. Gibbon (OW lesser ape) g. Gorilla (OW great ape)

14 Lemurs, Tarsiers, Aye-Ayes, Lori

15 Lemurs

16 Tarsier

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18 Aye-Aye The aye-aye shown here lives on the island of Madagascar. It is a very specialized insect-eater. Large eyes & good climbing abilities. The aye-aye, and most other prosimians, differ from monkeys and apes in having a moist area of skin on the nose.

19 Lori

20 Platyrrhine Monkeys Platyrrhines Flat noses Nostrils point sideways Many have prehensile tails Live in South and Central America

21 Platyrrhine Monkeys: Tamarins

22 Platyrrhine Monkeys : Capuchin Monkey

23 Prehensile Tail

24 Catarrhine Monkeys Downward- pointing nostrils Evolved and found in Africa and Asia

25 Catarrhines Divided into two Superfamilies: 1.Old World Monkeys 2.Hominoids –Lack tails, have larger skulls, & walk partially upright –Include Gibbons, Gorillas, Orangutans, Humans, & Chimpanzees

26 Catarrhine Monkeys: Mandrill and Diana

27 Terrestrial Old World Monkeys: Baboon

28 Lesser Ape: Gibbon

29 Great Ape: Orangutan

30 Great Ape: Gorilla

31 Great Ape: Chimpanzee

32 Locomotion forms Brachiation Knuckle walking Laetoli, Tanzania, c million years ago Bipedalism

33 Primate Characteristics: Summary Large brains 3-D vision, Reduced Sense of Smell Flexible shoulder joints, Vertical Positioning of Trunk Hands and feet with five digits Grasping thumb

34 Primate Characteristics: Summary (cont.) Flat fingernails instead of claws Generalized dentition Extended Gestation and Maturation Strong Maternal-Offspring Bond High Degree of Socialization


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