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Section 4 Primates & Human Origins

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1 Section 4 Primates & Human Origins
Chapter 43 Mammals Section 4 Primates & Human Origins

2 Primate Characteristics
Prehensile appendages- hands, feet, and tails can grasp Large brain- allows for complex skills- interacting socially, parental care, using hands, interpreting visual information Acute color vision- forward facing eyes for depth perception


4 Primate Characteristics
Generalist teeth- herbivorous and omnivorous diet Communication- facial and vocal structure Infant care- infants require care- usually one pair of mammary glands on the chest


6 Primate Characteristics
Manual dexterity- opposable thumbs, flattened nails protect finger pads Social organization- live in social groups Characteristic skeletal structure- sit upright, cling to trees


8 Anthropoids Anthropoid primates- gibbon- New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans Adaptations: rotating shoulder, elbow joints, opposable thumb- can touch other fingers Grasping feet

9 New World monkeys- orange Old World monkeys- red

10 Anthropoids Humans, apes, and Old World monkeys- similar dental structures Anthropoids have a larger brain structure Great apes- orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans

11 Anthropoids DNA sequence- humans are more closely related to chimpanzee than chimpanzee related to gorilla DNA & fossil evidence suggest that humans and chimps share a common ancestor Humans did NOT descend from chimps- evolved from common ancestor



14 Modern Humans Bipedalism- tendency to walk upright on two legs
Bowl-shaped human pelvis S-shaped spine Toes are aligned Large brain, smaller jaw Apes communicate & humans reason with communication


16 Hominids Hominids- humans and extinct humanlike anthropoid species
Bipedalism All other primates are quadrupedal

17 Fossil Hominids Paleontologists & anthropologists (scientists who study humans) found fossil evidence of humanlike species 1974- Afar Valley region of Africa by Donald Johanson and colleagues founded a bipedal fossil of early human ancestor


19 Australopithecines Australopithecus afarensis- “Lucy”
Additional fossils of Lucy have been discovered in the same area Australopithecines- subfamily


21 Many Hominid Species 1995- Mary Leakey- found Australopithecus afarensis Similar to Lucy and chimpanzees


23 Humans Humans- extinct and living members of this genus (Homo)

24 Homo habilis & Homo erectus
1960s- hominid skull- larger brain capacity than Lucy- Homo habilis Homo erectus- (“upright human”)- brain capacity of 2/3 modern human size- scientists think these were the first humans to travel out of Africa

25 Homo sapiens & Homo neanderthalensis
Neanderthals- Europe & Asia Lived in caves & made tools out of stone May have interacted with Homo sapiens H. Sapiens- first humans- France (first fossil)

26 Modern Humans Mitochondrial DNA suggests humans originated from Africa
Interbreeding of humans helped populate the world full of the human race

27 REVIEW!!! Identify which characteristics humans share with primates and which are unique to humans. What kind of evidence shows that chimpanzees are the closest living relatives of humans?

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