Making Complex Sentences noun clauses adverbial clauses
Types of sentences Simple sentences: one independent clause (one subject, one verb) Compound sentences: two independent clauses joined by a semicolon, a comma + coordinating conjunction, or a transition. Complex sentences Compound-complex sentences
What is a complex sentence? A complex sentence contains two or more clauses: an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. The dependent clause may be a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause. A dependent clause begins with a subordinator (subordinating conjunction) and contains a subject and a verb. A dependent clause is not a complete idea and cannot stand alone.
Examples of complex sentences complex sentence with an adverbial clause: After I finish washing the dishes, I ought to mow the lawn. complex sentence with a relative clause: A good friend is a person who accepts you for yourself. Im looking for a car that gets good gas mileage. complex sentence with a noun clause: I think that you are absolutely right. Im not sure when we are supposed to finish the project.
Compound-complex sentences A compound-complex sentence has at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. A good friend is a person who accepts you as you are, and everyone needs a good friend.
Try it yourself Analyze the text in Exercise 2, page 22 of Grammar Troublespots. Can you combine the seven sentences into one?
Think about it Do you use a variety of sentence patterns in your writing? If not, why not? Write your ideas in your notebook. Which type of sentence do you usually use? rarely use? Why? Write your ideas in your notebook.
Model sentences In your notebook, write a model complex sentence that contains an adverbial clause, and a model compound-complex sentence. A sentence with a dependent clause at the beginning (use a comma) A sentence with a dependent clause at the end (dont use a comma) A sentence with a noun clause from a question A sentence with a noun clause from a statement using the subjunctive
Adverbial clauses Reveal information about time, place, manner, frequency, purpose, reason, conditions, and other meanings. Begin with a subordinator (also called subordinating conjunction) and contain a subject and a verb.
Problems with adverbial clauses 1 Adverb clauses alone are fragments. They must be joined to independent clauses. Jay joined the military. Because he wanted leadership experience and money for tuition. Jay joined the military because he wanted leadership experience and money for tuition.
Problems with adverbial clauses 2 Use present tense verbs in time clauses referring to the future. X As soon as she will get here, Ill tell her the bad news. As soon as she gets here, Ill tell her the bad news. Choose the correct subordinator for your meaning.
A partial list of adverbial clause subordinators meaningsubordinating conjunctions timewhen, whenever, before, after, while, as, as long as, since, until cause/resultif, when concessionalthough, even though conditionif, even if, only if, unless contrastwhereas while reason/causebecause, as, since purposeso that
Think about it Are you aware of any problems you have with adverbial clauses? Take a moment to write down your ideas in your notebook. Choose five adverbial subordinators youve never used before but would like to learn. Write model sentences in your notebook. Use one of these sentences for your daily practice.
Noun clauses Noun clauses are clauses which function as nouns in a sentence. They can be subjects, objects, or objects of prepositions. Noun clauses can be formed from statements, yes/no questions, or information questions.
Noun clauses from information questions Information questions begin with wh- words such as who, when, where, etc. Question word order is not used in noun clauses. Use S-V-O word order. Omit do. Keep the wh- word. Where does she live? I dont know where she lives. What countries has he visited? Im not sure what countries he has visited.
Noun clauses from yes/no questions Introduce a noun clause made from a yes/no question with whether or if. or not can be used immediately after whether or at the end of the sentence. It can also be used at the end of the sentence with if. Use S-V-O word order. Can Julie come to the meeting? I wonder if Julie can come to the meeting (or not). I wonder whether (or not) Julie can come to the meeting. I wonder whether Julie can come to the meeting (or not).
Noun clauses from statements Statements can be made into noun clauses by adding that to the beginning of the statement. When the noun clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, that is required. When it comes later in the sentence, that may be omitted. It is always unstressed. That Einstein was a genius is obvious. Its obvious (that) Einstein was a genius.
Problems with noun clauses Use the subjunctive (base form) with certain verbs and adjectives showing urgency or importance. It is imperative that he leave at once! We recommend that you be on time. Be sure to use S-V-O word order.
Think about it In your notebook, write three model sentences to practice noun clauses: a noun clause from an information question a noun clause from a yes/no question a noun clause from a statement using the subjunctive