2Types of sentencesSimple sentences: one independent clause (one subject, one verb)Compound sentences: two independent clauses joined by a semicolon, a comma + coordinating conjunction, or a transition.Complex sentencesCompound-complex sentences
3What is a complex sentence? A complex sentence contains two or more clauses: an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.The dependent clause may be a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.A dependent clause begins with a subordinator (subordinating conjunction) and contains a subject and a verb.A dependent clause is not a complete idea and cannot stand alone.
4Examples of complex sentences complex sentence with an adverbial clause:After I finish washing the dishes, I ought to mow the lawn.complex sentence with a relative clause:A good friend is a person who accepts you for yourself.I’m looking for a car that gets good gas mileage.complex sentence with a noun clause:I think that you are absolutely right.I’m not sure when we are supposed to finish the project.
5Compound-complex sentences A compound-complex sentence has at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.A good friend is a person who accepts you as you are, and everyone needs a good friend.
6Try it yourselfAnalyze the text in Exercise 2, page 22 of Grammar Troublespots. Can you combine the seven sentences into one?
7Think about itDo you use a variety of sentence patterns in your writing? If not, why not? Write your ideas in your notebook.Which type of sentence do you usually use? rarely use? Why? Write your ideas in your notebook.
8Model sentencesIn your notebook, write a model complex sentence that contains an adverbial clause, and a model compound-complex sentence.A sentence with a dependent clause at the beginning (use a comma)A sentence with a dependent clause at the end (don’t use a comma)A sentence with a noun clause from a questionA sentence with a noun clause from a statement using the subjunctive
9Adverbial clausesReveal information about time, place, manner, frequency, purpose, reason, conditions, and other meanings.Begin with a subordinator (also called subordinating conjunction) and contain a subject and a verb.
10Problems with adverbial clauses 1 Adverb clauses alone are fragments. They must be joined to independent clauses.Jay joined the military. Because he wanted leadership experience and money for tuition.Jay joined the military because he wanted leadership experience and money for tuition.
11Problems with adverbial clauses 2 Use present tense verbs in time clauses referring to the future.X As soon as she will get here, I’ll tell her the bad news.As soon as she gets here, I’ll tell her the bad news.Choose the correct subordinator for your meaning.
12A partial list of adverbial clause subordinators meaningsubordinating conjunctionstimewhen, whenever, before, after, while, as, as long as, since, untilcause/resultif, whenconcessionalthough, even thoughconditionif, even if, only if, unlesscontrastwhereaswhilereason/causebecause, as, sincepurposeso that
13Think about itAre you aware of any problems you have with adverbial clauses? Take a moment to write down your ideas in your notebook.Choose five adverbial subordinators you’ve never used before but would like to learn.Write model sentences in your notebook.Use one of these sentences for your daily practice.
14Noun clausesNoun clauses are clauses which function as nouns in a sentence. They can be subjects, objects, or objects of prepositions.Noun clauses can be formed from statements, yes/no questions, or information questions.
15Noun clauses from information questions Information questions begin with wh- words such as who, when, where, etc.Question word order is not used in noun clauses. Use S-V-O word order.Omit “do”. Keep the wh- word.Where does she live?I don’t know where she lives.What countries has he visited?I’m not sure what countries he has visited.
16Noun clauses from yes/no questions Introduce a noun clause made from a yes/no question with “whether” or “if”.“or not” can be used immediately after “whether” or at the end of the sentence. It can also be used at the end of the sentence with “if”.Use S-V-O word order.Can Julie come to the meeting?I wonder if Julie can come to the meeting (or not).I wonder whether (or not) Julie can come to the meeting.I wonder whether Julie can come to the meeting (or not).
17Noun clauses from statements Statements can be made into noun clauses by adding “that” to the beginning of the statement.When the noun clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, “that” is required. When it comes later in the sentence, “that” may be omitted. It is always unstressed.That Einstein was a genius is obvious.It’s obvious (that) Einstein was a genius.
18Problems with noun clauses Use the subjunctive (base form) with certain verbs and adjectives showing urgency or importance.It is imperative that he leave at once!We recommend that you be on time.Be sure to use S-V-O word order.
19Think about itIn your notebook, write three model sentences to practice noun clauses:a noun clause from an information questiona noun clause from a yes/no questiona noun clause from a statement using the subjunctive