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Hattusha. Origins Hattusha became the center of power for the Hittites in the late Bronze Age, and it reached its peak of power between 1600- 1200 BC.

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Presentation on theme: "Hattusha. Origins Hattusha became the center of power for the Hittites in the late Bronze Age, and it reached its peak of power between 1600- 1200 BC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hattusha

2 Origins Hattusha became the center of power for the Hittites in the late Bronze Age, and it reached its peak of power between BC. The city was the seat of the royal administration and it was the religious capital for the Hittites. It is situated on a mountain slope surrounded by deep gorges

3 A Double City The lower city consisted of the Northwest third of Hattusha Two of the most important complexes here are the Great Temple and the Büyükkale

4 A Double City The lower city consisted of the Northwest third of Hattusha Two of the most important complexes here are the Great Temple and the Büyükkale

5 A Double City The Upper City was carefully planned under the reign of Greatking Tuthaliya IV (c B.C.) and his son Suppiluliuma II. This encompassed two thirds of the city and was almost entirely designated for religious purposes. Excavated largely by Peter Neve, the Upper City contains a central temple quarter, several sacred ponds and is surrounded by a double wall which is pierced by several gates used for cult practices.

6 Temples to the Thousand Gods Thirty temples were found in the Upper City, though it can be assumed that more temples lie in this area. The size of the temples and the great number of rooms indicate that the temples also served economic purposes. The importance placed on religion by the kings of Hattusha is seen by this proliferation of temples.

7 Temples to the Thousand Gods Temples 2, 3, and 5 are not only the largest, but the earliest of the temples. Temples 4, 6 and 26 appear to have walled-off precincts. Temple 31 was in the South Castle Precinct, a stronghold with large official buildings, and was probably associated with cult practices involved with the Eastern lakes and their chambers.

8 Sacred Ponds In two separate sections of the Upper City, there have been found remnants of sacred man-made lakes. The Southern Ponds, found in one of the higher elevations of the city, were used as reservoirs and were where a number of libation vessels were found. The two Eastern Ponds were separated by a dam, and are associated with the nearby Chambers 1 and 2.

9 Sacred Ponds In two separate sections of the Upper City, there have been found remnants of sacred man-made lakes. The Southern Ponds, found in one of the higher elevations of the city, were used as reservoirs and were where a number of libation vessels were found. The two Eastern Ponds were separated by a dam, and are associated with the nearby Chambers 1 and 2.

10 Hieroglyphic Chambers These chambers are located at the Southern and Northern end of the dam. The better preserved of the two is the Northern chamber (2), where the walls of the chamber are decorated with numerous reliefs, including 6 lines of hieroglyphics. According to David Hawkins, the inscription deals with the divine stone path to the underground and may reference a nearby trench as an entrance to the underworld.

11 Hieroglyphic Chambers These chambers are located at the Southern and Northern end of the dam. The better preserved of the two is the Northern chamber (2), where the walls of the chamber are decorated with numerous reliefs, including 6 lines of hieroglyphics. According to David Hawkins, the inscription deals with the divine stone path to the underground and may reference a nearby trench as an entrance to the underworld.

12 Walls and Gates The Walls surrounded the entire city and was approximately 8 meters thick. Gates pierced the walls at intervals, most of which served cult purposes. The three monumental gateways were symmetrical around the Upper City, and processions started at Temple 5.

13 Kings Gate The Kings Gate consists of two doorways in the form of parabolic arches and is flanked by two towers. Cultic processions began here and began their path around the city. Above the gate there is a sculpture in high relief of a warrior, who is believed to have been the god protector of the king.

14 Sphinx Gate The Sphinx Gate was the most important, highest point on this cultic procession. This gate, unlike the other gates in this path, was not flanked by towers but passes directly through a tower. The entrance is flanked by four sphinxes, which were probably adapted from the Egyptians.

15 Lion Gate The Lion Gate was a mirror image of the Kings Gate, the both of which were centered on the Sphinx Gate. The cultic procession would re-enter the city here. Lions were an important symbol of protection seen throughout Hattusha and the rest of the ancient Near East.

16 Yazilikaya Yazilikaya was a rock sanctuary located outside of the city walls of Hattusha. The rooms of this sactuary were composed of natural rock faces, and were screened from the outside world by an architectural comples This was the site of a yearly gathering of the Hurrian gods, and where foreign dieties were incorporated into the religious life of the Hittite Empire.

17 An Empire Falls Perhaps a hidden motive for Tudhalyas massive building projects was to measure up to the Assyrian king Tukulti- Ninurta. Only a few decades (and one generation) later, the thousand-year-old city fell to a presently unknown enemy, and the thousand gods failed to come to its rescue.


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