Two major regions of Ancient Egypt Lower Egypt –The Nile Delta Upper Egypt –Upstream
The Nile River Boats could use the current to travel north… Or use the winds to travel south. Flows from south to north. Why is the Egyptian civilization known as the “gift of the Nile?”
The Nile River Flooded every summer –Left silt and rich soil on sides of the river. Egyptians were relatively isolated from other civilizations. These factors allowed the Egyptians to feel secure. –Had confidence in stability of their civilization.
Egyptian Writing Earliest writing was called hieroglyphics –M–Means “sacred writings” –V–Very complex – used pictures –U–Used on temple walls and in tombs. Hieratic script is a simplified version of hieroglyphics.
Three Major Periods The Old Kingdom The Middle Kingdom The New Kingdom These periods had… –Strong leadership –Freedom from invasion –Great building projects –Rich cultural activity
Lasted from 2700 B.C. to 2200 B.C. Pharaoh –Title of Egyptian monarch –A God-King far from his people. Also established a bureaucracy –An administrative organization Built Pyramids –Buildings dedicated to the dead. –Build the Great Pyramid at Giza The Old Kingdom
The Great Pyramid at Giza Built for King Khufu in 2540 B.C.Built for King Khufu in 2540 B.C. Traditional story is that it took 100,000 Egyptians 20 years to build.Traditional story is that it took 100,000 Egyptians 20 years to build.
The Great Sphinx at Giza Body of a lion, head of a human.Body of a lion, head of a human. Believed to be a likeness of Khufu’s son Khafre.Believed to be a likeness of Khufu’s son Khafre. The sphinx is an important guardian of sacred sites.The sphinx is an important guardian of sacred sites.
Lasted from 2055 B.C. to 1650 B.C. Egypt begins to expand… –Invaded Nubia and Syria- Palestine. Begins trading with… –Greece –Mesopotamia! Invaded by Hyksos people in 1650 B.C. –They rule Egypt for 100 years. The Middle Kingdom
The New Kingdom Lasts from 1550 B.C. to 1070 B.C. –In 1550 B.C., new pharaohs use new weapons to retake Egypt. These new pharaohs become very powerful and wealthy. –Built many temples to show off wealth. Examples: Hatshepsut and Tutankhamen
One of the first women to become pharaoh. Hatsheptsut
She builds a great temple near Thebes. Hatsheptsut
Tutankhamen Was only 8 or 9 years old when he became king. Died at age 25 – his death remains a mystery. His tomb was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter. –Was the most intact and best preserved tomb ever discovered.
Collapses in 1070 B.C. Egypt is then ruled by other civilizations for the next 1000 years. –Eventually becomes part of the Roman empire. Which kingdom (Old, Middle, or New), do you consider to be Egypt’s Golden Age? The New Kingdom