Presentation on theme: "EGYPT “ Gift of the Nile ”. Impact of Geography The Nile is the longest river in the world The Nile Delta is Lower Egypt The land to the South is called."— Presentation transcript:
Impact of Geography Natural barriers (desert/river) Being around desert helped keep away invaders. People felt safe and happy.
The Importance of Religion Religious ideas were inseparable from daily life Polytheistic Religion with multiple gods Poly vs. Mono(theistic) Most important gods associated with land (Isis), river (Osiris), and sun (Atum or Re)
The Course of Egyptian History Three major periods: Old, Middle, and New kingdom separated by brief periods of chaos 3100 b.c. King Menes united upper and lower Egypt First Egyptian dynasty Dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
The Old Kingdom Lasted from 2700 to 2200 B.C. Age of prosperity A Pharaoh ruled over a powerful unified state King was seen as a god Government bureaucracy developed headed by the vizier Bureaucracy An administrative organization with officials and procedures
The Old Kingdom Building of the pyramids occurred in the time of the Old Kingdom –Pyramids were believed to be portals to the next life –Contained rooms stocked with possessions for use in the next world –Bodies were mummified: a process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from rotting
Think about it What was the purpose of the great building projects such as the Pyramids and the Sphinx?
The Middle Kingdom Lasted from 2050 to 1652 B.C. Period of militaristic expansion –Conquered Nubia –Built fortresses to protect borders New role for the pharaoh –New concern for his people –Seen as the “ shepherd of his people ” –Built public works and provided for the public welfare
The New Kingdom Invasion of the Hyksos ended the Middle Kingdom Egyptians learned from their conquerors –The use of bronze –Mastered the use of chariots –Used new skills to drive out Hyksos and reunite Egypt
The New Kingdom Lasted from 1567 to 1085 B.C. Created a military empire that dominated the Middle East Massive wealth boosted the power of the pharaoh Anmenhotep tried to change the religion Social upheaval led to the downfall of the Egyptian Empire Dominated by outsiders for the next 1000 years
Society in Ancient Egypt Simple social structure organized like a pyramid –God-king at the top –Upper class of nobles and priests –Merchants, artisans, scribes, and tax collectors –Simple farmers, lower class peasants
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt Positive attitude towards life Married young and practiced monogamy Marriages were arranged by the parents Main concern was family and property Worked hard but had fun
The Role of Women Husband was master of the house but wives were well respected Wives were in charge of the household and education of the children Women could own property Some women could operate businesses and 4 became Pharaoh Hatshepsut first female Pharaoh
Writing and Education Writing emerged around 3000 B.C. Hieroglyphics “ priest carvings ” Hieratic script was a simplified version used by most people Written on papyrus Training for scribes was strict and began at the age of 10
Achievements in Art and Science Architectural masters Artists and sculptors were expected to follow a particular style for thousands of years Advancements in mathematics Developed an accurate 365 day calendar The practice of embalming led to medical expertise in human anatomy
Comparing Egypt and Mesopotamia Impact of Geography Government Religion Social Structure Writing Art / Architecture Development of Cities