Presentation on theme: "Food Security. Nutrition of patients has received considerable attention during all periods of human development. Hippocrates believed that treatment."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition of patients has received considerable attention during all periods of human development. Hippocrates believed that treatment should consist in the fact that at different stages of the disease to be able to choose the right foods in the quantitative and qualitative respects. The Roman physician Asclepiades (128-56 BC), which is considered the founder of the Diet, at odds with the views of the time rejected the pharmacotherapy and thetreatment is considered on the basis of the diet. Together with his students, he has developed detailed guidance on the use of nutrients in the treatment of various diseases. Historical background
Dietetics (from diet and... ology), dietetics, the science of nutrition of patients, studies, and validating the principles of nutrition in various diseases. (Power healthy people engaged in food hygiene.) In the past, the whole science of dietetics called on health care, modern hygiene, since the beginning of the 19th century. limited to questions of dietetics and nutrition rationalization of the 20th century. almost become synonymous with nutrition. Terminology
Therapeutic nutrition is an important part of the treatment. The purpose of clinical nutrition is to ensure the body's physiological needs for nutrients and the normalization of the functional state of various organs and metabolic processes, disrupted due to illness. Exacerbation of many diseases are associated with various excesses in the diet: chronic pancreatitis after eating a fatty cream, pancakes, alcoholic beverages, fried foods, violations of the diet in diabetes lead to a sharp rise in blood sugar, dry mouth, increased thirst, progressive fatty infiltration liver and pancreas, increased blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension is observed in the use of salty foods, appointed withtreatment of low efficiency. Nutritional care
-Nutritional care should contribute to directional effects on metabolism, and it should heal, and prevent the worsening of many diseases. Observe correct diet: eat regularly, at the same time. In this case, produced a conditioned reflex in the time allocated the most active gastric juice and the most conducive conditions for the digestion of food. For health care facilities recommended by the four meals: breakfast at 8-9 h and 13-14 h lunch, dinner in 17-18 hours, eating at night at 21 pm The choice of this time due to a physiological feature of the human body, activity its enzyme systems. Calorie meals: breakfast - 30%, lunch - 40%, Dinner - 25%, eating at night - 5%. It is desirable that the last meal was for 4-5 hours before bedtime. - It is necessary to diversify the diet. If the food is varied, includes food and animal (meat, fish, eggs, milk, cottage cheese), and plant origin (vegetables, fruit, cereal, bread), you can be sure that the body receives all the necessary for life. Basic principles of nutrition
T he first group - milk and dairy products (milk, yogurt, buttermilk, cottage cheese, etc.). The second group - vegetables, fruits, berries (fresh cabbage andsauerkraut, potatoes, carrots, beets, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, pumpkins, apples, currants, strawberries, etc.). The third group - meat, poultry, fish, eggs (animal protein sources). The fourth group - bread, pasta, cereals. The fifth group - fats (butter and vegetable oil). The sixth group - sweet (sugar, honey, confectionery). In cases of various diseases it is limited to use certain food groups. For example, in the diets used in obesity, diabetes, eating sweets is severely limited or prohibited. The main food groups
Unloading (contrast) diet used periodically to partial starvation and unloading of the affected organs and body systems. They are used with obesity, hypertension, heart failure, liver disease and kidney failure, gout, colitis, etc. Assign contrasting diets occasionally 2-4 times a month for 1-2 days Fasting diet
It is very popular all over the world to go on so-called "fashion diet" proposed by various authors (doctors, artists, writers, etc.) to achieve any important task. "Trendy diets" are designed to reduce body weight, longevity, better health. Most of these diets non-physiological, deficient in many nutrients and can not be recognized by official medicine. Clinical dietetics
Incorrect nutrition Anorexia affects mainly young women (only 10% of patients are male). Most often it is the result of compliance with various diets. Gradually the diet is becoming increasingly strict, she eats less and less until, finally, to recover the fear of not becoming intrusive. Psychologically, at this stage, the woman is still considered the weight excess, although in factit has been a lack of weight gain and begin to show signs of malnutrition.
Among healthy individuals: poor nutrition overeating Quick meal "on the fly" in a stressful environment Abuse of butter and fatty foods Drinking large amounts of sweets and foods containing caffeine (coffee, tea, chocolate) Abuse of acute and spicy food Alcohol abuse, smoking, stress Sleep or rest lying down after meals Lack of exercise. Obesity. constipation Wearing tight clothing Individual sensitivity to foods - citrus fruits, onions, garlic, tomato products(juice, pasta, sauces) The first half of pregnancy The most common causes of heartburn
IBW= kg/m 2 CLASSIFICATION OF BODY MASS IN TERMS OF IBW Body weight IBW stage of obesity Defective< 18,5 normal18,5-24,9 excessive25,0-29,9 obesity30,0-34,9I 35,0-39,9II extreme obesity40 and moreIII
An assessment of liquid needs Human requires more and more liquid because of: - Diarrhea, vomiting, - Sweating, - Fever - each C0 increases the fluid requirements by 13% - Dehydration.
An assessment of liquid needs - are several methods to assess the basic needs of the organism in the fluid: Adults: 1. 1500 ml/m2 2. 1500 ml for the first 20 kg body weight 20 ml/kg over 20 kg 3. 30-35 ml/kg (18-65), 25 ml/kg (over 65) 4. 1 ml/kcal Children Body weight (kg) 1-10 11-20 >20 Basic needs of fluid a day 100-150 ml / kg 1000 ml 50 ml for each kg over 10 kg 1500 ml 20 ml for each kg over 20 kg