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Nutrition Nutrients. Nutrient Needs There are some general guidelines given by the government through Canadas Food Guide The Food guide is an excellent.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Nutrients. Nutrient Needs There are some general guidelines given by the government through Canadas Food Guide The Food guide is an excellent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Nutrients

2 Nutrient Needs There are some general guidelines given by the government through Canadas Food Guide The Food guide is an excellent start, however, it deals with average people that are exercising 30- 60 minutes a day. Most athletes have higher caloric needs then whats on here Athletes that are training may want to increase protein and carbohydrate intake during training to increase muscle mass For athletes, they may want to follow the Dietary Reference Intakes that focus on nutrient intake

3 Protein Protein is made of Amino Acids, there are AAs that are non-essential and can be made by our bodies, and those that are essential and must be taken in from meat, eggs and dairy products Protein intake guidelines vary from 0.5- 0.9 g/lb of lean bodyweight for training individuals. The majority of this protein should come from complete protein sources

4 Protein in the diet An active 180lb male aged 16 will need about 3000 Cal in a day. Of that about 15- 20% should come from protein (450-600 Cal) There are 4 Cal/g of protein, therefore this same athlete should consume ~110-150g of protein (this ends up being ~0.6-0.8g/lb in this athlete) Excessively high amounts of protein are unnecessary and amounts over 1.8g/lb are not advisable

5 Protein amounts in food (examples) 1 egg, 2 egg whites, or 1/4 c. egg substitute = 6-7 g 1 cup of milk = 8-10 g 1/4 c. cottage cheese = 7 g 1 cup of yogurt = 8 g 1 oz. of chicken, fish, pork, or beef = 7 g (A 3-ounce portion (21 g protein) is the size of the deck of cards) 1 oz. of cheese (except cream cheese) = 7 g 1 slice of bread or 1/2 bagel = 3 g 1 cup of cereal = 3-6 g 2 T. peanut butter = 7 g 1/2 to 2/3 cup of dried beans or lentils = 7 g 3 T. miso = 7 g 4 oz. raw, firm tofu = 9 g 1 cup soy milk = 7 g 1/2 c. peas or corn = 3 g 1/2 cup of non-starchy vegetables = 2 g

6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of chains of simple sugars (eg. Glucose or fructose). There are different forms of these that vary from relatively simple sugars to complex carbohydrates (depending on the length of the chain) Carbohydrates are stored in our muscles and liver in the form of glycogen, which supplies energy along with blood sugar The glycemic index measures the affect foods have on the blood sugar levels and insulin response in our bodies. On a regular basis lower GI foods would be preferable, but before, during and after exercise foods higher in GI would be.

7 Carbohydrates in the diet Carbohydrates are the best fuel for providing energy and should therefore be the preferred source of calories for athletes (50-65%). The number of grams needed per day is higher for endurance athletes 3.5-4.5g/lb, and much less for anaerobic athletes 2-3g/lb Adequate amounts of carbohydrate in the diet are necessary for building muscle. Protein is spared in preference of carbs in our body, therefore, inadequate protein means breaking down muscle Using our 180lb 3000Cal/day athlete from before, as an endurance athlete he would need nearly 2500Cal from Carbs (he would likely need to increase his Cal/day aswell) as an training endurance athlete, and about 1500-1900 Cal/day for anaerobic athletes from Carbohydrate (Carbs contain 4 Cal/g) Also included in the diet should be a high amount of fiber, usually about 13g of fiber/1000Cal in the diet

8 Fat Fat in our diet is generally thought of as our consumption of triglycerides (saturated and unsaturated fats) Associated with fat is cholesterol, as most of our bodily cholesterol is synthesized in our livers and the levels depend on the types of fat that we eat Fat serves primarily as an energy source (the largest in our body) at rest and light exercise our body mainly will burn fat. Fat also carries important Vits Cholesterol has many important functions in maintaining hormone levels, but high levels can lead to heart disease Unsaturated fats decrease the levels of Cholesterol in the blood, whereas trans and saturated fats increase

9 Fat in the diet Fat provides the highest number of calories per volume (9 Cal/g) It is recommended that athletes consume at least 20-25% of their calories from fats with emphasis on healthy fats that provide omega 3 and 6 fatty acids while avoiding high saturated fats Fat is a necessary component of the diet and should not be limited extremely Higher fat diets have been linked to higher performance by endurance athletes (though for anaerobic athletes this may not hold) At 180lbs and ~3000Cal, our athlete should be taking in about 750Cal (or ~85g) of fat

10 Overall Picture Looking at our 180lb ~3000Cal/day athlete Ideally he would be eating 450-600Cal of protein (making sure he got his EAAs), 1500-1900 Cal of carbohydrates(making sure he thought of the timing of high versus low GI), and taking in about 750Cal from fat (trying to ensure the fats are primarily unsaturated provided omegas)

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