Section 1 Introduction Body Requirement for Nutrients carbohydrate fats protein vitamins organic The human body and foods are made of the same materials, arranged in different ways. minerals water Energy-yielding nutrients
How Diet Relates to Health and disease? Balanced diet Rational nutrition Support growth,maintenance,and repair of the body Improve immunity Prevent and treat diseases
a poor diet malnutrition deficiencies imbalances excesses chronic disease heart disease diabetes some kinds of cancer adult bone loss,etc. Conversel y
Basic Diets General diet Soft diet Semi-liquid diet Liquid diet Basic diets are the foundation of the other diets.
General diet Clients with normal digestive and absorptive function, with normal temperature, and those during the process of recovery or without diet limit. Reference--Balanced nutrition, easily digested, not stimulating, 3 meals a day with total energy of 2200-2600kcal/d, and protein of 70- 90g/d.
Soft diet C lients having difficulty in chewing, or gastrointestinal function disorders, elders, infants and those during postoperative recovery. Reference--Balanced nutrition, easily chewed, not stimulating, soft food such as noodle, steamed bread, vegetables, well-cooked mince meat, 3-4 meals a day with total energy of 2200-2400kcal/d and protein of 60-80g/d.
Semi-liquid diet Clients with fever, oral diseases or gastrointestinal disorders or having difficulty in chewing and swallowing, or those during postoperative period. Reference--Not stimulating, easily chewed and swallowed, semi-liquid food such as rice porridge, noodle, bean-curd and dumpling, small frequent meals with fixed quantity of each staple food, 5 meals recommended a day with total energy of 1500-2000kcal/ d and protein of 50-70g/d.
Liquid diet Clients with hyperthermia, oral diseases, acute inflammation, having difficulty in swallowing, acute gastrointestinal disturbances, or those in critical conditions, during postoperative period. Reference--Easily swallowed and digested liquid food such as milk, bean milk, fruit juice, only for temporary use because of insufficient energy, 6-7 meals a day 200-250ml each time with total energy of 836-1195kcal/ d and protein of 40~50g/ d.
Therapeutic Diets Therapeutic diets are based on the basic diets and used as treatment by adjusting total energy and certain nutrients.
High energy diet High protein diet Low protein diet Low salt diet Salt free and low sodium diet Low fat diet Low cholesterol diet Low residue or residue free diet High food fiber diet Therapeutic Diets
High energy diet Clients with diseases of high consumption of energy; such as tuberculosis, large area burns, liver diseases, and hyperthyroidism. Reference--In addition to basic diet, 2 more meals are added a day such as milk, bean milk, egg, cake, chocolate, with total energy of 3000kcal/d.
High protein diet Clients with long-term consumptive diseases, malnutrition, anemia, burns, malignancy, nephritic syndrome, hypoprotein, and those before or after operation, in pregnancy, and lactation. Reference--In addition to basic diet,high-protein food such as meat, fish, egg, beans are added with total amount of protein 1.5-2g/ (kg d), < 120g/d and total energy of 2500-3000kcal/ d.
Low protein diet Clients who need limited protein intake, such as acute nephritis, uremia, and hepatic coma. Reference--Limited protein intake with total amount of protein < 40g/d for adult. (20-30g/ d according to conditions)
Low salt diet Clients with hypertension, congestive heart failure, ascites, aura eclampsia, chronic nephritis. Reference--Restricted salt in cooking and diet, with total amount of salt < 2g/ d for adult except for natural sodium in food. Pickled food is forbidden.
Salt free and low sodium diet Same as those of low salt diet, in addition to severe edema clients. Reference--No salt in cooking except for natural sodium in food, with no more than 0.5g/d, High-sodium food and medicine is forbidden.
Low fat diet Clients with hepatic, cystic, and pancreatic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and obesity. Reference--Restricted oil and forbidden fat, and fried food. with total fat amount <50g/ d.
Low cholesterol diet Clients with arteriosclerosis, hypertension, coronary heart disease, high serum cholesterol levels. Reference--High-cholesterol food such as animals brain, viscera, yolk are restricted with total cholesterol amount<300mg/ d.
Low residue or residue free diet Clients with diarrhea, enteritis, typhoid, dysentery, and those after gastrointestinal operation, Gastroesophageal varication, rectum and anus operation. Reference--High fiber food is forbidden or restricted. Hard food with smashed bones is forbidden.
High food fiber diet Clients with constipation, obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Reference--High fiber food are recommended.
Test Diets(diagnostic diets ) Test diets are used to help diagnosis and insure accurate testing by adjusting the contents of diets in special time. Occult test diet Cholecystography test diet Creatinine test diet 131 I thyroid uptake test diet,etc.
Occult blood test diet The three-day test diet is used for preparation of occult blood test to assist the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding. The client who is going to have the test is forbidden during this period any food that can lead to a false positive result, such as meat, poultry, medicine and food rich in iron, and green vegetables. The test sample will be taken on the forth day.
Cholecystography test diet The test is used in diagnosing gallbladder disease, bile duct disease and hepatic bile duct disease. Before the test day, the client should have high fat diet for lunch and fat free, low protein, high carbohydrates diet for supper, followed by contrast after which food and water are absolutely forbidden until the morning of the test day. The client should not have breakfast on the test day. After the first X-ray examination, the client can have a high fat meal (fat 25-50g) if the gall bladder develops well. In 30 minutes the client can have the second X-ray examination.
Creatinine test diet The three-day test is used. to check the kidney filtration function. During this period, meat, poultry, fish, tea, and coffee are absolutely forbidden, and protein intake is also limited to the total amount of protein<40g/d. The test sample will be taken on the third day.
131 I thyroid uptake test diet The two-week test is used to check the function of thyroid. During this period, food rich in iodine, such as kelp, jellyfish, shrimp, iodized salt as well as iodine for skin disinfection are absolutely forbidden.
Section 3 Nutrition Assessment Affecting factors Diets status Physical status Laboratory Test
Physical factors Age Physical activity Special life cycle status Age Physical activity Special life cycle status Physiological factors Pathological factors Disease and drug food allergies Disease and drug food allergies
Sociocultural factors Economic Situation Lifestyle Personal Preference Environment Knowledge About Nutrition
Diets status eating patterns Changes in appetite Influencing factors (impaired chewing or swallowing) Meals time Category and amount of Food intake
Physical status Physical Examination Anthropometric Measurements
Physical Examination Area of ExaminationSigns of Malnutrition General appearance and vitality Apathetic, look tired, easily fatigued Skin Dry, flaky or scaly; pale or pigmented; lack of subcutaneous fat NailsBrittle, pale, ridged or spoon-shaped HairDry, dull, sparse, loss of color, brittle Eyes Pale or red conjunctiva, dryness, soft cornea, dull cornea LipsSwollen, red cracks at side of mouth Tongue Swollen, beefy red or magenta colored; smooth appearance; decrease or increase in size Gums Spongy, swollen, inflamed; bleed easily MusclesUnderdeveloped, wasted, soft Clinical Signs of Malnutrition
Anthropometric Measurements Height and weight skin fold thickness arm circumference AC
Height and weight The standard of IBW IBW (kg) = [height(cm) – 100] × 0.9 IBW (kg) = height(cm) – 105 Calculating percent of weight loss or gain %weight loss IBW CBW / IBW×100% %weight gain CBW IBW/ IBW×100% normal :± 10 %
Body Mass Index(BMI) The normal range: 18.5~22.9 overweight :23~27.9 obesity: 28 WHO BMI = weight(kg) / height(m 2 )
The BMI values have two major drawbacks: they fail to indicate how much of the weight is fat; where that fat is located.
The fat lying deep within the bodys abdominal cavity may pose an especially high risk to health. deep within the central abdominal area of the body
skin fold thickness lean middling fat male 10mm 10 ~ 40 mm 40mm female 20mm 20 ~ 50 mm 50mm the triceps skinfold About half of the fat in the body lies directly beneath the skin.
Laboratory Test Serum Proteins Urinary Tests Total Lymphocyte Count
Section 4 Diet nursing Diet administer Arrange the client's diet according to the diet orders. Meals care
Pre- Meals care During Meals care Post- Meals care
Pre- Meals care Diet education Preparation Stimulating the Appetite Environment client
Relieving illness symptoms that depress appetite prior to mealtime. Providing familiar food that the client likes. Avoiding unpleasant or uncomfortable treatments immediately before or after a meal. Providing a tidy, clean environment. Encouraging or providing oral hygiene for clients before mealtime Reducing psychological stress. Stimulating the Appetite
During Meals care Check the type of diet. Do not give an incorrect diet for clients. Assist clients who cannot help themselves to remove the food. For a blind client, identify the placement of food as you would describe the time on a clock. soup (12 ) vegetables(9) vegetables (3 ) rice (6 )
Post- Meals care replace the food covers and give the client care. note how much and what the client has eaten and the amount of fluid taken. If the client's intake and output of fluid is being recorded, nurse should record. Pay attention to the fasting client especially on shift.
tube feeding nasogastric gavage – is a medical approach to maintain clients nutrition and ensure treatment by inserting a tube to gastrointestinal duct via nasal cavity, through which fluid food, water, and medicine are infused.
Elemental diets Elemental diet is a purified food whose chemical composition is definite and it contains all the required nutrients of human body. severe burn and trauma digestive tract fistula the nutritional support of pre-operation and post-operation non-infectious diarrhea malabsorption and malnutrition, etc.
Purpose Elemental diet could achieve the Therapeutic and adjunctive therapy effect for the severely ill patients.
Notes to nursing It should be initially offered in a small amount and can be increased gradually at a low and slow pace when patients are tolerated well then stabilize the prescription, dosage and transfusion rate. Follow sterile procedure and prevent contamination. Prepared feedings should be stored in refrigerator below 4°C and should be used up in less than 24h. The infusion temperature is 41°C 42°C, and take it orally in 37°C. Irrigate the tube with warm water before and after infusion, which prevent tube from obstruction.
Continue Clients need some necessary lab tests such as blood glucose, urine glucose, blood urea nitrogen, electrolyte. Observe clients' urine and stool, record client's weight, and monitor 24h intake and output. Observe the client's response during feeding. When clients have some symptoms such as nausea, vomit, abdominal distention, and diarrhea, nurses should find the reason, adjust infusion rate and temperature, and stop infusion for severe clients. The feedings is stopped gradually to prevent hypoglycemia.
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) PN also referred to as total parenteral nutrition (TPN). PN is provided when the gastrointestinal tract is nonfunctional. PN is administered intravenously through a central venous catheter into the superior vena cava. Clients who accept PN therapy include those with severe malnutrition, severe burns, bowel disease disorder, acute renal failure, hepatic failure, cancer or major surgeries where nothing may be taken by mouth for more than 5 days.
Nursing care for the client's receiving PN is based on three major nursing goals: preventing infection; maintaining the PN system; preventing complications such as metabolic, electrolyte or fluid balance.
Observation and nursing during infusion Monitoring Prevention of complications and nursing of client with complications
Complications related to catheterization Infection Metabolic complications