2 What you will learn about Diet 2What you will learn aboutin this topic:A healthy, balanced dietHow diet can aid a sportsperson
3 Diet 3Learning objectivesBy the end of this presentation you should be able to:Understand why diet is important to sports performanceDescribe the different parts of a balanced dietExplain how special diets can aid sports performance
4 Task Why do we need to eat food? Diet 4TaskWhy do we need to eat food?Spend three minutes noting down as many reasons as you can think of.Teacher’s notesPossible answers include: provides energy, helps the body function, assists the body in growth and to repair injured tissue and contributes to good general health.
5 Diet 5Balanced dietA balanced diet is made up of seven different categories:CarbohydratesProteinsFatsVitaminsMineralsFibreWater
6 Diet 6CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are the sugars and starches found in certain foods, which are changed into a sugar called glucose by the body.Carbohydrates can be divided into two sub-groups:Simple carbohydratesComplex carbohydrates
7 Simple carbohydrates consist of one or two sugar units. For example: Diet 7Simple carbohydrates consist of one or two sugar units. For example:SugarSweetsHoneyFruit
8 Complex carbohydrates consist of hundreds of sugar units. For example: Diet 8Complex carbohydrates consist of hundreds of sugar units. For example:BreadPastaRicePotatoes
9 Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Diet 9Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen.Glycogen converts to glucose and is used as energy for the muscles, brain and other organs.Excess carbohydrates are stored as fats.
10 Diet 10Carbohydrates aid the sportsperson by providing a ready source of energy for when the muscles need it.Athletes training hard use up carbohydrate stores quickly so diets should be high in this food type.
11 Diet 11ProteinProteins are large molecules required for the structure, function and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues and organs.Protein from food helps to build muscle and repair tissue, which is essential after an injury.
12 Pulses (such as chickpeas, lentils and beans) Nuts Diet 12Protein is found in:MeatFishPulses (such as chickpeas, lentils and beans)Nuts
13 Protein is broken down into amino acids. Diet 13Protein is broken down into amino acids.The body requires 21 types of amino acids to function properly.Our bodies can produce 13 types of non-essential amino acids. The other eight essential amino acids come from protein in our food.
14 Excess protein is converted into fat. Diet 14Excess protein is converted into fat.Sportspeople who need large muscle size will take in extra proteins for this effect.
15 Diet 15FatsFats are a form of stored energy, released slowly when there is a lack of carbohydrates.Fats should make up 30 per cent of a combination of saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.
16 Sources of fat include: Milk Cheese Butter Oils Diet 16Sources of fat include:MilkCheeseButterOils
17 Fats aid the sportsperson by: Diet 17Fats aid the sportsperson by:Increasing the body size and weight, important for sports that require extra bulk.Storing energy that is slowly released when there is a lack of carbohydrates.
18 Diet 18However, unnecessary weight can inhibit performance and lead to high cholesterol levels.
19 Diet 19VitaminsVitamins are key nutrients that the body needs in small amounts to grow and stay strong. There are 13 vitamins in total.
20 Sources of vitamins include: Citrus fruit (vitamin C) Diet 20Sources of vitamins include:Citrus fruit (vitamin C)Fish and liver (vitamin A)Whole grains and nuts (vitamin B1)Vegetable oil (vitamin E)
21 Vitamins aid the sportsperson by helping with: Diet 21Vitamins aid the sportsperson by helping with:VisionProduction of red blood cellsBlood clottingCondition of bones and teethSkin condition
22 Diet 22MineralsMinerals are nutrients needed by the body to help it function properly.Minerals are:IodineIronCalcium
23 Diet 23Iodine aids normal growth which is essential for the athlete to help energy production and comes from milk and saltwater fish.
24 Diet 24Iron helps the production of red blood cells and the way oxygen is carried in the body by haemoglobin. Iron comes from liver and green vegetables.
25 Calcium helps bones to grow and comes from: Milk Cheese Cereals Diet 25Calcium helps bones to grow and comes from:MilkCheeseCereals
26 Fibre Fibre (or roughage) helps digestion but contains no nutrients. Diet 26FibreFibre (or roughage) helps digestion but contains no nutrients.
27 There are two types of fibre: Diet 27There are two types of fibre:Insoluble: this adds bulk to food, helping it to move through the digestive systemSoluble: helps to reduce cholesterol, keeping the heart healthy
28 Fibre aids the sportsperson as: Diet 28Fibre aids the sportsperson as:Less cholesterol in the body allows the heart to work more efficientlyLess water retention occurs when the body’s digestive system is functioning properly
29 Water Water allows the blood to flow more easily around the body. Diet 29WaterWater allows the blood to flow more easily around the body.
30 Diet 30Drinking water is extremely important when exercising, as the body demands more oxygen, nutrients, heat control and waste removal.
31 Two-thirds of the body is made up of water. Diet 31Two-thirds of the body is made up of water.Sportspeople need to constantly replenish water lost through sweat, urine and condensation when they breathe.In extreme heat more water is needed to stop the effects of dehydration and heatstroke.
32 Diet 32Exam questions1. Give an example of a diet that could benefit a sports performer and explain how it works.Teacher’s notesPossible answers include:Carbohyrate loading diet - reduce carbohydrate intake a few weeks before an event, then a few days before the event, when the body is craving carbs, load up on them, such as having a pasta party. This helps the body to store energy in case it has to go without again. The benefit of this diet is that it gives a plentiful supply of energy for an endurance event.High-protein diet – a low carbohydrate diet with a high frequency of meals that are rich in protein four or five times a day, including protein shakes. The idea is to build or repair muscle after injury or simply to increase the bodies size.
33 Water, fibre, milk, protein, fats, carbohydrates, minerals Diet 332. The seven parts of a balanced diet are:Water, fibre, milk, protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineralsWater, protein, minerals, fats, vitamins, fibre, carbohydratesWater, fat, protein, dairy products, vitamins, fibre, carbohydratesFats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, protein, sugars, milkTeacher’s notesCorrect answer is 2B.
34 What you have learnt in this topic: Diet 34What you have learntin this topic:A healthy balanced dietHow diet can aid a sportsperson
35 Learning objectives You should now be able to: Diet 35Learning objectivesYou should now be able to:Understand why diet is important to sports performanceDescribe the different parts of a balanced dietExplain how special diets can aid sports performance